Stefan Bruckner

Stefan Bruckner is a full professor in Visualization at the Department of Informatics of the University of Bergen, Norway. He received his master's degree (2004) and Ph.D. (2008), both in Computer Science, from the TU Wien, Austria, and was awarded the habilitation (venia docendi) in Practical Computer Science in 2012. Before his appointment in Bergen in 2013, he was an assistant professor at the Institute of Computer Graphics and Algorithms of the TU Wien.

His research interests include all aspects of data visualization, with a particular focus on interactive techniques for the exploration and analysis of spatial data. He has made significant contributions to areas such as illustrative visualization, volume rendering, smart visual interfaces, biomedical data visualization, and visual parameter space exploration. In addition to his contributions in basic research, he has successfully led industry collaborations with major companies such as GE Healthcare and Agfa HealthCare, and has 6 granted patents.

He is a recipient of the Eurographics Young Researcher Award, the Karl-Heinz-Höhne Award for Medical Visualization, and his research has received 8 best paper awards and honorable mentions at international events. He was program co-chair of EuroVis, PacificVis, the Eurographics Workshop on Visual Computing for Biology and Medicine, the Eurographics Medical Prize, and serves on the editorial board of Computers & Graphics. He is an ACM Distinguished Speaker, and a member of ACM SIGGRAPH, Eurographics, and the IEEE Computer Society.

Please note that we are moving to new webpages, and not all content (e.g., publications) has been transferred yet . Please see our old pages for more complete information:

http://www.ii.uib.no/vis_old/team/bruckner/

Publications

2018

    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Magnus-2018-VPI,
    author = "Jens G. Magnus and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Interactive Dynamic Volume Illumination with Refraction and Caustics",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2018",
    volume = "24",
    number = "1",
    pages = "984--993",
    month = "jan",
    abstract = "In recent years, significant progress has been made in
    developing high-quality interactive methods for realistic volume
    illumination. However, refraction -- despite being an important aspect
    of light propagation in participating media -- has so far only received
    little attention. In this paper, we present a novel approach for
    refractive volume illumination including caustics capable of interactive
    frame rates. By interleaving light and viewing ray propagation, our
    technique avoids memory-intensive storage of illumination information
    and does not require any precomputation. It is fully dynamic and all
    parameters such as light position and transfer function can be modified
    interactively without a performance penalty.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Magnus-2018-IDV.pdf",
    images = "images/Magnus-2018-IDV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Magnus-2018-IDV.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3tn6sSXw4NQ",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2017.2744438",
    event = "IEEE SciVis 2017",
    keywords = "interactive volume rendering, illumination, refraction, shadows, caustics",
    location = "Phoenix, USA"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Stoppel-2018-SSW,
    author = "Sergej Stoppel and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Smart Surrogate Widgets for Direct Volume Manipulation",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of IEEE PacificVis 2018",
    year = "2018",
    pages = "36--45",
    month = "apr",
    abstract = "Interaction is an essential aspect in volume visualization, yet common
    manipulation tools such as bounding boxes or clipping plane
    widgets provide rather crude tools as they neglect the complex structure
    of the underlying data. In this paper, we introduce a novel
    volume interaction approach based on smart widgets that are automatically
    placed directly into the data in a visibility-driven manner.
    By adapting to what the user actually sees, they act as proxies that
    allow for goal-oriented modifications while still providing an intuitive
    set of simple operations that is easy to control. In particular, our
    method is well-suited for direct manipulation scenarios such as touch
    screens, where traditional user interface elements commonly exhibit
    limited utility. To evaluate out approach we conducted a qualitative
    user study with nine participants with various backgrounds.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Stoppel-2018-SSW.pdf",
    images = "images/Stoppel-2018-SSW.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Stoppel-2018-SSW.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wMRw-W0SrLk",
    event = "IEEE PacificVis 2018",
    keywords = "smart interfaces, volume manipulation, volume visualization",
    doi = "10.1109/PacificVis.2018.00014"
    }
    [PDF] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Bruckner-2018-MSD,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and Tobias Isenberg and Timo Ropinski and Alexander Wiebel",
    title = "A Model of Spatial Directness in Interactive Visualization",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (accepted for publication, to appear in an upcoming issue)",
    year = "2018",
    abstract = "We discuss the concept of directness in the context of spatial interaction with visualization. In particular, we propose a model
    that allows practitioners to analyze and describe the spatial directness of interaction techniques, ultimately to be able to better understand
    interaction issues that may affect usability. To reach these goals, we distinguish between different types of directness. Each type of
    directness depends on a particular mapping between different spaces, for which we consider the data space, the visualization space, the
    output space, the user space, the manipulation space, and the interaction space. In addition to the introduction of the model itself, we also
    show how to apply it to several real-world interaction scenarios in visualization, and thus discuss the resulting types of spatial directness,
    without recommending either more direct or more indirect interaction techniques. In particular, we will demonstrate descriptive and
    evaluative usage of the proposed model, and also briefly discuss its generative usage.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2018-MSD.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2018-MSD.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2018-MSD.png"
    }

2017

    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Smit-2017-PAS,
    author = "Noeska Smit and Kai Lawonn and Annelot Kraima and Marco DeRuiter and Hessam Sokooti and Stefan Bruckner and Elmar Eisemann and Anna Vilanova",
    title = "PelVis: Atlas-based Surgical Planning for Oncological Pelvic Surgery",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2017",
    volume = "23",
    number = "1",
    pages = "741--750",
    month = "jan",
    abstract = "Due to the intricate relationship between the pelvic organs and vital
    structures, such as vessels and nerves, pelvic anatomy is often considered
    to be complex to comprehend. In oncological pelvic surgery, a trade-off
    has to be made between complete tumor resection and preserving function
    by preventing damage to the nerves. Damage to the autonomic nerves
    causes undesirable post-operative side-effects such as fecal and
    urinal incontinence, as well as sexual dysfunction in up to 80 percent
    of the cases. Since these autonomic nerves are not visible in pre-operative
    MRI scans or during surgery, avoiding nerve damage during such a
    surgical procedure becomes challenging. In this work, we present
    visualization methods to represent context, target, and risk structures
    for surgical planning. We employ distance-based and occlusion management
    techniques in an atlas-based surgical planning tool for oncological
    pelvic surgery. Patient-specific pre-operative MRI scans are registered
    to an atlas model that includes nerve information. Through several
    interactive linked views, the spatial relationships and distances
    between the organs, tumor and risk zones are visualized to improve
    understanding, while avoiding occlusion. In this way, the surgeon
    can examine surgically relevant structures and plan the procedure
    before going into the operating theater, thus raising awareness of
    the autonomic nerve zone regions and potentially reducing post-operative
    complications. Furthermore, we present the results of a domain expert
    evaluation with surgical oncologists that demonstrates the advantages
    of our approach.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Smit-2017-PAS.pdf",
    images = "images/Smit-2017-PAS.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Smit-2017-PAS.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vHp05I5-hp8",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2016.2598826",
    event = "IEEE SciVis 2016",
    keywords = "atlas, surgical planning, medical visualization",
    location = "Baltimore, USA"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Kolesar-2017-FCC,
    author = "Ivan Kolesar and Stefan Bruckner and Ivan Viola and Helwig Hauser",
    title = "A Fractional Cartesian Composition Model for Semi-spatial Comparative Visualization Design",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2017",
    volume = "23",
    number = "1",
    pages = "851--860",
    month = "jan",
    abstract = "The study of spatial data ensembles leads to substantial visualization
    challenges in a variety of applications. In this paper, we present
    a model for comparative visualization that supports the design of
    according ensemble visualization solutions by partial automation.
    We focus on applications, where the user is interested in preserving
    selected spatial data characteristics of the data as much as possible—even
    when many ensemble members should be jointly studied using comparative
    visualization. In our model, we separate the design challenge into
    a minimal set of user-specified parameters and an optimization component
    for the automatic configuration of the remaining design variables.
    We provide an illustrated formal description of our model and exemplify
    our approach in the context of several application examples from
    different domains in order to demonstrate its generality within the
    class of comparative visualization problems for spatial data ensembles.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Kolesar-2017-FCC.pdf",
    images = "images/Kolesar-2017-FCC.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Kolesar-2017-FCC.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_zk67fmryok",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2016.2598870",
    event = "IEEE SciVis 2016",
    keywords = "visualization models, integrating spatial and non-spatial data visualization, design methodologies",
    location = "Baltimore, USA",
    project = "physioillustration"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Stoppel-2017-VPI,
    author = "Sergej Stoppel and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Vol²velle: Printable Interactive Volume Visualization",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2017",
    volume = "23",
    number = "1",
    pages = "861--870",
    month = "jan",
    abstract = "Interaction is an indispensable aspect of data visualization. The
    presentation of volumetric data, in particular, often significantly
    benefits from interactive manipulation of parameters such as transfer
    functions, rendering styles, or clipping planes. However, when we
    want to create hardcopies of such visualizations, this essential
    aspect is lost. In this paper, we present a novel approach for creating
    hardcopies of volume visualizations which preserves a certain degree
    of interactivity. We present a method for automatically generating
    Volvelles, printable tangible wheel charts that can be manipulated
    to explore different parameter settings. Our interactive system allows
    the flexible mapping of arbitrary visualization parameters and supports
    advanced features such as linked views. The resulting designs can
    be easily reproduced using a standard printer and assembled within
    a few minutes.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Stoppel-2017-VPI.pdf",
    images = "images/Stoppel-2017-VPI.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Stoppel-2017-VPI.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z1K8t-FCiXI",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2016.2599211",
    event = "IEEE SciVis 2016",
    keywords = "physical visualization, interaction, volume visualization, illustrative visualization",
    location = "Baltimore, USA"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Mindek-2017-DVN,
    author = "Peter Mindek and Gabriel Mistelbauer and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Data-Sensitive Visual Navigation",
    journal = "Computers \& Graphics",
    year = "2017",
    volume = "67",
    pages = "77--85",
    month = "oct",
    abstract = "In visualization systems it is often the case that the
    changes of the input parameters are not proportional to the visual
    change of the generated output. In this paper, we propose a model for
    enabling data-sensitive navigation for user-interface elements. This
    model is applied to normalize the user input according to the visual
    change, and also to visually communicate this normalization. In this
    way, the exploration of heterogeneous data using common interaction
    elements can be performed in an efficient way. We apply our model to the
    field of medical visualization and present guided navigation tools for
    traversing vascular structures and for camera rotation around 3D
    volumes. The presented examples demonstrate that the model scales to
    user-interface elements where multiple parameters are set
    simultaneously.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Mindek-2017-DVN.pdf",
    images = "images/Mindek-2017-DVN.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Mindek-2017-DVN.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FnhbjX7BRXI",
    note = "SCCG 2017 Best Paper Award",
    doi = "10.1016/j.cag.2017.05.012",
    event = "SCCG 2017",
    keywords = "navigation, exploration, medical visualization",
    location = "Mikulov, Czech Republic"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Solteszova-2017-OFS,
    author = "Veronika \v{S}olt{\'e}szov{\'a} and {\AA}smund Birkeland and Sergej Stoppel and Ivan Viola and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Output-Sensitive Filtering of Streaming Volume Data",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2017",
    volume = "36",
    number = "1",
    pages = "249--262",
    month = "jan",
    abstract = "Real-time volume data acquisition poses substantial challenges for
    the traditional visualization pipeline where data enhancement is
    typically seen as a pre-processing step. In the case of 4D ultrasound
    data, for instance, costly processing operations to reduce noise
    and to remove artifacts need to be executed for every frame. To enable
    the use of high quality filtering operations in such scenarios, we
    propose an output-sensitive approach to the visualization of streaming
    volume data. Our method evaluates the potential contribution of all
    voxels to the final image, allowing us to skip expensive processing
    operations that have little or no effect on the visualization. As
    filtering operations modify the data values which may affect the
    visibility, our main contribution is a fast scheme to predict their
    maximum effect on the final image. Our approach prioritizes filtering
    of voxels with high contribution to the final visualization based
    on a maximal permissible error per pixel. With zero permissible error,
    the optimized filtering will yield a result identical to filtering
    of the entire volume. We provide a thorough technical evaluation
    of the approach and demonstrate it on several typical scenarios that
    require on-the-fly processing.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Solteszova-2017-OFS.pdf",
    images = "images/Solteszova-2017-OFS.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Solteszova-2017-OFS.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xGPs560ttp0",
    doi = "10.1111/cgf.12799",
    keywords = "output-sensitive processing, volume data, filtering"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Diehl-2017-AVA,
    author = "Alexandra Diehl and Leandro Pelorosso and Kresimir Matkovic and Juan Ruiz and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Albero: A Visual Analytics Approach for Probabilistic Weather Forecasting",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2017",
    volume = "36",
    number = "7",
    pages = "135--144",
    month = "oct",
    abstract = "Probabilistic weather forecasts are amongst the most popular
    ways to quantify numerical forecast uncertainties. The analog
    regression method can quantify uncertainties and express them as
    probabilities. The method comprises the analysis of errors
    from a large database of past forecasts generated with a specific
    numerical model and observational data. Current visualization
    tools based on this method are essentially automated and provide limited
    analysis capabilities. In this paper, we propose a novel
    approach that breaks down the automatic process using the experience and
    knowledge of the users and creates a new interactive
    visual workflow. Our approach allows forecasters to study probabilistic
    forecasts, their inner analogs and observations, their
    associated spatial errors, and additional statistical information by
    means of coordinated and linked views. We designed the
    presented solution following a participatory methodology together with
    domain experts. Several meteorologists with different
    backgrounds validated the approach. Two case studies illustrate the
    capabilities of our solution. It successfully facilitates the
    analysis of uncertainty and systematic model biases for improved
    decision-making and process-quality measurements.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Diehl-2017-AVA.pdf",
    images = "images/Diehl-2017-AVA.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Diehl-2017-AVA.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-yqoeEgkz28",
    doi = "10.1111/cgf.13279",
    keywords = "visual analytics, weather forecasting, uncertainty"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Lind-2017-CCR,
    author = "Andreas Johnsen Lind and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Comparing Cross-Sections and 3D Renderings for Surface Matching Tasks using Physical Ground Truths",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2017",
    volume = "23",
    number = "1",
    pages = "781--790",
    month = "jan",
    abstract = "Within the visualization community there are some well-known techniques
    for visualizing 3D spatial data and some general assumptions about
    how perception affects the performance of these techniques in practice.
    However, there is a lack of empirical research backing up the possible
    performance differences among the basic techniques for general tasks.
    One such assumption is that 3D renderings are better for obtaining
    an overview, whereas cross sectional visualizations such as the commonly
    used Multi- Planar Reformation (MPR) are better for supporting detailed
    analysis tasks. In the present study we investigated this common
    assumption by examining the difference in performance between MPR
    and 3D rendering for correctly identifying a known surface. We also
    examined whether prior experience working with image data affects
    the participant’s performance, and whether there was any difference
    between interactive or static versions of the visualizations. Answering
    this question is important because it can be used as part of a scientific
    and empirical basis for determining when to use which of the two
    techniques. An advantage of the present study compared to other studies
    is that several factors were taken into account to compare the two
    techniques. The problem was examined through an experiment with 45
    participants, where physical objects were used as the known surface
    (ground truth). Our findings showed that: 1. The 3D renderings largely
    outperformed the cross sections; 2. Interactive visualizations were
    partially more effective than static visualizations; and 3. The high
    experience group did not generally outperform the low experience
    group.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Lind-2017-CCR.pdf",
    images = "images/Lind-2017-CCR.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Lind-2017-CCR.png",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2016.2598602",
    event = "IEEE SciVis 2016",
    keywords = "human-computer interaction, quantitative evaluation, volume visualization",
    location = "Baltimore, USA"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Swoboda-2017-VQI,
    author = "Nicolas Swoboda and Judith Moosburner and Stefan Bruckner and Jai Y. Yu and Barry J. Dickson and Katja B{\"u}hler",
    title = "Visualization and Quantification for Interactive Analysis of Neural Connectivity in Drosophila",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2017",
    volume = "36",
    number = "1",
    pages = "160--171",
    month = "jan",
    abstract = "Neurobiologists investigate the brain of the common fruit fly Drosophila
    melanogaster to discover neural circuits and link them to complex
    behavior. Formulating new hypotheses about connectivity requires
    potential connectivity information between individual neurons, indicated
    by overlaps of arborizations of two or more neurons. As the number
    of higher order overlaps (i.e., overlaps of three or more arborizations)
    increases exponentially with the number of neurons under investigation,
    visualization is impeded by clutter and quantification becomes a
    burden. Existing solutions are restricted to visual or quantitative
    analysis of pairwise overlaps, as they rely on precomputed overlap
    data. We present a novel tool that complements existing methods for
    potential connectivity exploration by providing for the first time
    the possibility to compute and visualize higher order arborization
    overlaps on the fly and to interactively explore this information
    in both its spatial anatomical context and on a quantitative level.
    Qualitative evaluation by neuroscientists and non-experts demonstrated
    the utility and usability of the tool",
    pdf = "pdfs/Swoboda-2017-VQI.pdf",
    images = "images/Swoboda-2017-VQI.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Swoboda-2017-VQI.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bycWGQQpqks",
    doi = "10.1111/cgf.12792",
    keywords = "visual analysis, neurobiology"
    }

2016

    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Stoppel-2016-GIR,
    author = "Sergej Stoppel and Erlend Hodneland and Helwig Hauser and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Graxels: Information Rich Primitives for the Visualization of Time-Dependent Spatial Data",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of VCBM 2016",
    year = "2016",
    pages = "183--192",
    month = "sep",
    abstract = "Time-dependent volumetric data has important applications in areas
    as diverse as medicine, climatology, and engineering. However, the
    simultaneous quantitative assessment of spatial and temporal features
    is very challenging. Common visualization techniques show either
    the whole volume in one time step (for example using direct volume
    rendering) or let the user select a region of interest (ROI) for
    which a collection of time-intensity curves is shown. In this paper,
    we propose a novel approach that dynamically embeds quantitative
    detail views in a spatial layout. Inspired by the concept of small
    multiples, we introduce a new primitive graxel (graph pixel). Graxels
    are view dependent primitives of time-intensity graphs, generated
    on-the-fly by aggregating per-ray information over time and image
    regions. Our method enables the detailed feature-aligned visual analysis
    of time-dependent volume data and allows interactive refinement and
    filtering. Temporal behaviors like frequency relations, aperiodic
    or periodic oscillations and their spatial context are easily perceived
    with our method. We demonstrate the power of our approach using examples
    from medicine and the natural sciences.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Stoppel-2016-GIR.pdf",
    images = "images/Stoppel-2016-GIR.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Stoppel-2016-GIR.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UsClj3ytd0Y",
    doi = "10.2312/vcbm.20161286",
    event = "VCBM 2016",
    keywords = "time-dependent data, volume data, small multiples",
    location = "Bergen, Norway"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Labschuetz-2016-JJC,
    author = "Matthias Labsch{\"u}tz and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Markus Hadwiger and Peter Rautek",
    title = "JiTTree: A Just-in-Time Compiled Sparse GPU Volume Data Structure",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2016",
    volume = "22",
    number = "1",
    pages = "1025--1034",
    month = "jan",
    abstract = "Abstract—Sparse volume data structures enable the efficient representation
    of large but sparse volumes in GPU memory for com putation and visualization.
    However, the choice of a specific data structure for a given data
    set depends on several factors, such as the memory budget, the sparsity
    of the data, and data access patterns. In general, there is no single
    optimal sparse data structure, but a set of several candidates with
    individual strengths and drawbacks. One solution to this problem
    are hybrid data structures which locally adapt themselves to the
    sparsity. However, they typically suffer from increased traversal
    overhead which limits their utility in many applications. This paper
    presents JiTTree, a novel sparse hybrid volume data structure that
    uses just-in-time compilation to overcome these problems. By combining
    multiple sparse data structures and reducing traversal overhead we
    leverage their individual advantages. We demonstrate that hybrid
    data structures adapt well to a large range of data sets. They are
    especially superior to other sparse data structures for data sets
    that locally vary in sparsity. Possible optimization criteria are
    memory, performance and a combination thereof. Through just-in-time
    (JIT) compilation, JiTTree reduces the traversal overhead of the
    resulting optimal data structure. As a result, our hybrid volume
    data structure enables efficient computations on the GPU, while being
    superior in terms of memory usage when compared to non-hybrid data
    structures.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Labschuetz-2016-JJC.pdf",
    images = "images/Labschuetz-2016-JJC.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Labschuetz-2016-JJC.png",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2015.2467331",
    event = "IEEE SciVis 2015",
    keywords = "data transformation and representation, GPUs and multi-core architectures, volume rendering",
    location = "Chicago, USA"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Klein-2016-TIV,
    author = "Tobias Klein and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Markus Hadwiger and Peter Rautek",
    title = "Towards Interactive Visual Exploration of Parallel Programs using a Domain-Specific Language",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the International Workshop on OpenCL 2016",
    year = "2016",
    month = "apr",
    abstract = "The use of GPUs and the massively parallel computing paradigm have
    become wide-spread. We describe a framework for the interactive visualization
    and visual analysis of the run-time behavior of massively parallel
    programs, especially OpenCL kernels. This facilitates understanding
    a program's function and structure, finding the causes of possible
    slowdowns, locating program bugs, and interactively exploring and
    visually comparing different code variants in order to improve performance
    and correctness. Our approach enables very specific, user-centered
    analysis, both in terms of the recording of the run-time behavior
    and the visualization itself. Instead of having to manually write
    instrumented code to record data, simple code annotations tell the
    source-to-source compiler which code instrumentation to generate
    automatically. The visualization part of our framework then enables
    the interactive analysis of kernel run-time behavior in a way that
    can be very specific to a particular problem or optimization goal,
    such as analyzing the causes of memory bank conflicts or understanding
    an entire parallel algorithm.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Klein-2016-TIV.pdf",
    images = "images/Klein-2016-TIV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Klein-2016-TIV.png",
    doi = "10.1145/2909437.2909459",
    event = "IWOCL 2016",
    extra = "pdfs/Klein-2016-TIV-Poster.pdf",
    keywords = "domain specific languages, GPU programming, visual exploration",
    location = "Vienna, Austria",
    owner = "bruckner"
    }

2015

    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Karimov-2015-GVE,
    author = "Alexey Karimov and Gabriel Mistelbauer and Thomas Auzinger and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Guided Volume Editing based on Histogram Dissimilarity",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2015",
    volume = "34",
    number = "3",
    pages = "91--100",
    month = "may",
    abstract = "Segmentation of volumetric data is an important part of many analysis
    pipelines, but frequently requires manual inspection and correction.
    While plenty of volume editing techniques exist, it remains cumbersome
    and error-prone for the user to find and select appropriate regions
    for editing. We propose an approach to improve volume editing by
    detecting potential segmentation defects while considering the underlying
    structure of the object of interest. Our method is based on a novel
    histogram dissimilarity measure between individual regions, derived
    from structural information extracted from the initial segmentation.
    Based on this information, our interactive system guides the user
    towards potential defects, provides integrated tools for their inspection,
    and automatically generates suggestions for their resolution. We
    demonstrate that our approach can reduce interaction effort and supports
    the user in a comprehensive investigation for high-quality segmentations.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Karimov-2015-GVE.pdf",
    images = "images/Karimov-2015-GVE.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Karimov-2015-GVE.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zjTYkXTm_dM",
    doi = "10.1111/cgf.12621",
    event = "EuroVis 2015",
    keywords = "medical visualization, segmentation, volume editing, interaction",
    location = "Cagliari, Italy",
    owner = "bruckner",
    timestamp = "2015.06.08",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2015/karimov-2015-HD/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Mindek-2015-ASM,
    author = "Peter Mindek and Ladislav \v{C}mol{\'i}k and Ivan Viola and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Automatized Summarization of Multiplayer Games",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of SCCG 2015",
    year = "2015",
    pages = "93--100",
    month = "apr",
    abstract = "We present a novel method for creating automatized gameplay dramatization
    of multiplayer video games. The dramatization serves as a visual
    form of guidance through dynamic 3D scenes with multiple foci, typical
    for such games. Our goal is to convey interesting aspects of the
    gameplay by animated sequences creating a summary of events which
    occurred during the game. Our technique is based on processing many
    cameras, which we refer to as a flock of cameras, and events captured
    during the gameplay, which we organize into a so-called event graph.
    Each camera has a lifespan with a certain time interval and its parameters
    such as position or look-up vector are changing over time. Additionally,
    during its lifespan each camera is assigned an importance function,
    which is dependent on the significance of the structures that are
    being captured by the camera. The images captured by the cameras
    are composed into a single continuous video using a set of operators
    based on cinematographic effects. The sequence of operators is selected
    by traversing the event graph and looking for specific patterns corresponding
    to the respective operators. In this way, a large number of cameras
    can be processed to generate an informative visual story presenting
    the gameplay. Our compositing approach supports insets of camera
    views to account for several important cameras simultaneously. Additionally,
    we create seamless transitions between individual selected camera
    views in order to preserve temporal continuity, which helps the user
    to follow the virtual story of the gameplay.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Mindek-2015-ASM.pdf",
    images = "images/Mindek-2015-ASM.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Mindek-2015-ASM.png",
    note = "SCCG 2015 Best Paper Award",
    doi = "10.1145/2788539.2788549",
    keywords = "animation, storytelling, game visualization",
    location = "Smolenice, Slovakia",
    owner = "bruckner",
    timestamp = "2015.06.08",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2015/mindek-2015-mc/"
    }
    [PDF] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Angelelli-2015-PQA,
    author = "Paolo Angelelli and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Performance and Quality Analysis of Convolution-Based Volume Illumination",
    journal = "Journal of WSCG",
    year = "2015",
    volume = "23",
    number = "2",
    pages = "131--138",
    month = "jun",
    abstract = "Convolution-based techniques for volume rendering are among the fastest
    in the on-the-fly volumetric illumination category. Such methods,
    however, are still considerably slower than conventional local illumination
    techniques. In this paper we describe how to adapt two commonly used
    strategies for reducing aliasing artifacts, namely pre-integration
    and supersampling, to such techniques. These strategies can help
    reduce the sampling rate of the lighting information (thus the number
    of convolutions), bringing considerable performance benefits. We
    present a comparative analysis of their effectiveness in offering
    performance improvements. We also analyze the (negligible) differences
    they introduce when comparing their output to the reference method.
    These strategies can be highly beneficial in setups where direct
    volume rendering of continuously streaming data is desired and continuous
    recomputation of full lighting information is too expensive, or where
    memory constraints make it preferable not to keep additional precomputed
    volumetric data in memory. In such situations these strategies make
    single pass, convolution-based volumetric illumination models viable
    for a broader range of applications, and this paper provides practical
    guidelines for using and tuning such strategies to specific use cases.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Angelelli-2015-PQA.pdf",
    images = "images/Angelelli-2015-PQA.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Angelelli-2015-PQA.png",
    keywords = "volume rendering, global illumination, scientific visualization, medical visualization"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Diehl-2015-VAS,
    author = "Alexandra Diehl and Leandro Pelorosso and Claudio Delrieux and Celeste Saulo and Juan Ruiz and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Visual Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Data: Applications in Weather Forecasting",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2015",
    volume = "34",
    number = "3",
    pages = "381--390",
    month = "may",
    abstract = "Weather conditions affect multiple aspects of human life such as economy,
    safety, security, and social activities. For this reason, weather
    forecast plays a major role in society. Currently weather forecasts
    are based on Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models that generate
    a representation of the atmospheric flow. Interactive visualization
    of geo-spatial data has been widely used in order to facilitate the
    analysis of NWP models. This paper presents a visualization system
    for the analysis of spatio-temporal patterns in short-term weather
    forecasts. For this purpose, we provide an interactive visualization
    interface that guides users from simple visual overviews to more
    advanced visualization techniques. Our solution presents multiple
    views that include a timeline with geo-referenced maps, an integrated
    webmap view, a forecast operation tool, a curve-pattern selector,
    spatial filters, and a linked meteogram. Two key contributions of
    this work are the timeline with geo-referenced maps and the curve-pattern
    selector. The latter provides novel functionality that allows users
    to specify and search for meaningful patterns in the data. The visual
    interface of our solution allows users to detect both possible weather
    trends and errors in the weather forecast model.We illustrate the
    usage of our solution with a series of case studies that were designed
    and validated in collaboration with domain experts.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Diehl-2015-VAS.pdf",
    images = "images/Diehl-2015-VAS.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Diehl-2015-VAS.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhQwsuXpHo8",
    doi = "10.1111/cgf.12650",
    event = "EuroVis 2015",
    keywords = "weather forecasting, visual analysis, spatiotemporal data",
    location = "Cagliari, Italy",
    owner = "bruckner",
    timestamp = "2015.06.08"
    }

2014

    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Sedlmair-2014-VPS,
    author = "Michael Sedlmair and Christoph Heinzl and Stefan Bruckner and Harald Piringer and Torsten M{\"o}ller",
    title = "Visual Parameter Space Analysis: A Conceptual Framework",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2014",
    volume = "20",
    number = "12",
    pages = "2161--2170",
    month = "dec",
    abstract = "Various case studies in different application domains have shown the
    great potential of visual parameter space analysis to support validating
    and using simulation models. In order to guide and systematize research
    endeavors in this area, we provide a conceptual framework for visual
    parameter space analysis problems. The framework is based on our
    own experience and a structured analysis of the visualization literature.
    It contains three major components: (1) a data flow model that helps
    to abstractly describe visual parameter space analysis problems independent
    of their application domain; (2) a set of four navigation strategies
    of how parameter space analysis can be supported by visualization
    tools; and (3) a characterization of six analysis tasks. Based on
    our framework, we analyze and classify the current body of literature,
    and identify three open research gaps in visual parameter space analysis.
    The framework and its discussion are meant to support visualization
    designers and researchers in characterizing parameter space analysis
    problems and to guide their design and evaluation processes.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Sedlmair-2014-VPS.pdf",
    images = "images/Sedlmair-2014-VPS.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Sedlmair-2014-VPS.png",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2014.2346321",
    event = "IEEE VIS 2014",
    keywords = "parameter space analysis, input-output model, simulation, task characterization, literature analysis",
    location = "Paris, France"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Waldner-2014-GHI,
    author = "Manuela Waldner and Stefan Bruckner and Ivan Viola",
    title = "Graphical Histories of Information Foraging",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of NordiCHI 2014",
    year = "2014",
    pages = "295--304",
    month = "oct",
    abstract = "During information foraging, knowledge workers iteratively seek, filter,
    read, and extract information. When using multiple information sources
    and different applications for information processing, re-examination
    of activities for validation of previous decisions or re-discovery
    of previously used information sources is challenging. In this paper,
    we present a novel representation of cross-application histories
    to support recall of past operations and re-discovery of information
    resources. Our graphical history consists of a cross-scale visualization
    combining an overview node-link diagram of used desktop resources
    with nested (animated) snapshot sequences, based on a recording of
    the visual screen output during the users’ desktop work. This representation
    makes key elements of the users’ tasks visually stand out, while
    exploiting the power of visual memory to recover subtle details of
    their activities. In a preliminary study, users found our graphical
    history helpful to recall details of an information foraging task
    and commented positively on the ability to expand overview nodes
    into snapshot and video sequences.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Waldner-2014-GHI.pdf",
    images = "images/Waldner-2014-GHI.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Waldner-2014-GHI.png",
    doi = "10.1145/2639189.2641202",
    keywords = "interaction history, graph visualization, provenance",
    owner = "bruckner",
    timestamp = "2014.12.30",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2014/waldner-2014-ghi/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Solteszova-2014-VPS,
    author = "Veronika \v{S}olt{\'e}szov{\'a} and {\AA}smund Birkeland and Ivan Viola and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Visibility-Driven Processing of Streaming Volume Data",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of VCBM 2014",
    year = "2014",
    pages = "127--136",
    month = "sep",
    abstract = "In real-time volume data acquisition, such as 4D ultrasound, the raw
    data is challenging to visualize directly without additional processing.
    Noise removal and feature detection are common operations, but many
    methods are too costly to compute over the whole volume when dealing
    with live streamed data. In this paper, we propose a visibility-driven
    processing scheme for handling costly on-the-fly processing of volumetric
    data in real-time. In contrast to the traditional visualization pipeline,
    our scheme utilizes a fast computation of the potentially visible
    subset of voxels which significantly reduces the amount of data required
    to process. As filtering operations modify the data values which
    may affect their visibility, our method for visibility-mask generation
    ensures that the set of elements deemed visible does not change after
    processing. Our approach also exploits the visibility information
    for the storage of intermediate values when multiple operations are
    performed in sequence, and can therefore significantly reduce the
    memory overhead of longer filter pipelines. We provide a thorough
    technical evaluation of the approach and demonstrate it on several
    typical scenarios where on-the-fly processing is required.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Solteszova-2014-VPS.pdf",
    images = "images/Solteszova-2014-VPS.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Solteszova-2014-VPS.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJgc6BX1qig",
    note = "VCBM 2014 Best Paper Award",
    doi = "10.2312/vcbm.20141198",
    event = "VCBM 2014",
    keywords = "ultrasound, visibility-driven processing, filtering",
    location = "Vienna, Austria"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @INCOLLECTION {Amirkhanov-2014-HSH,
    author = "Artem Amirkhanov and Stefan Bruckner and Christoph Heinzl and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "The Haunted Swamps of Heuristics: Uncertainty in Problem Solving",
    booktitle = "Scientific Visualization: Uncertainty, Multifield, Biomedical, and Scalable Visualization",
    publisher = "Springer",
    year = "2014",
    editor = "Min Chen and Hans Hagen and Charles D. Hansen and Christopher R. Johnson and Arie E. Kaufman",
    series = "Mathematics and Visualization",
    chapter = "5",
    pages = "51--60",
    month = "sep",
    abstract = "In scientific visualization the key task of research is the provision  of insight into a problem. Finding the solution to a problem may  be seen as finding a path through some rugged terrain which contains  mountains, chasms, swamps, and few flatlands. This path - an algorithm  discovered by the researcher - helps users to easily move around  this unknown area. If this way is a wide road paved with stones it  will be used for a long time by many travelers. However, a narrow  footpath leading through deep forests and deadly swamps will attract  only a few adventure seekers. There are many different paths with  different levels of comfort, length, and stability, which are uncertain  during the research process. Finding a systematic way to deal with  this uncertainty can greatly assist the search for a safe path which  is in our case the development of a suitable visualization algorithm  for a specific problem. In this work we will analyze the sources  of uncertainty in heuristically solving visualization problems and  will propose directions to handle these uncertainties.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Amirkhanov-2014-HSH.pdf",
    images = "images/Amirkhanov-2014-HSH.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Amirkhanov-2014-HSH.png",
    doi = "10.1007/978-1-4471-6497-5_5",
    keywords = "uncertainty, heuristics, problem solving",
    owner = "bruckner",
    timestamp = "2014.12.30",
    url = "http://www.springer.com/mathematics/computational+science+%26+engineering/book/978-1-4471-6496-8"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Angelelli-2014-LUP,
    author = "Paolo Angelelli and Sten Roar Snare and Siri Ann Nyrnes and Stefan Bruckner and Helwig Hauser and Lasse L{\o}vstakken",
    title = "Live Ultrasound-based Particle Visualization of Blood Flow in the Heart",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of SCCG 2014",
    year = "2014",
    pages = "42--49",
    month = "may",
    abstract = "We introduce an integrated method for the acquisition, processing
    and visualization of live, in-vivo blood flow in the heart. The method
    is based on ultrasound imaging, using a plane wave acquisition acquisition
    protocol, which produces high frame rate ensemble data that are efficiently
    processed to extract directional flow information not previously
    available based on conventional Doppler imaging. These data are then
    visualized using a tailored pathlet-based visualization approach,
    to convey the slice-contained dynamic movement of the blood in the
    heart. This is especially important when imaging patients with possible
    congenital heart diseases, who typically exhibit complex flow patterns
    that are challenging to interpret. With this approach, it now is
    possible for the first time to achieve a real-time integration-based
    visualization of 2D blood flow aspects based on ultrasonic imaging.
    We demonstrate our solution in the context of selected cases of congenital
    heart diseases in neonates, showing how our technique allows for
    a more accurate and intuitive visualization of shunt flow and vortices.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Angelelli-2014-LUP.pdf",
    images = "images/Angelelli-2014-LUP.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Angelelli-2014-LUP.png",
    doi = "10.1145/2643188.2643200",
    keywords = "ultrasound medical visualization, real-time visualization, blood flow visualization",
    url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2643188.2643200"
    }
    [PDF] [VID] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Kolesar-2014-IPT,
    author = "Ivan Kolesar and Julius Parulek and Ivan Viola and Stefan Bruckner and Anne-Kristin Stavrum and Helwig Hauser",
    title = "Illustrating Polymerization using Three-level Model Fusion",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of IEEE BioVis 2014",
    year = "2014",
    month = "aug",
    abstract = "Research in cell biology is steadily contributing new knowledge about
    many different aspects of physiological processes like polymerization,
    both with respect to the involved molecular structures as well as
    their related function. Illustrations of the spatio-temporal development
    of such processes are not only used in biomedical education, but
    also can serve scientists as an additional platform for in-silico
    experiments. In this paper, we contribute a new, three-level modeling
    approach to illustrate physiological processes from the class of
    polymerization at different time scales. We integrate physical and
    empirical modeling, according to which approach suits the different
    involved levels of detail best, and we additionally enable a simple
    form of interactive steering while the process is illustrated. We
    demonstrate the suitability of our approach in the context of several
    polymerization processes and report from a first evaluation with
    domain experts.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Kolesar-2014-IPT.pdf",
    vid = "vids/Kolesar14Polymers.mp4",
    images = "images/Kolesar-2014-IPT.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Kolesar-2014-IPT.png",
    keywords = "biochemical visualization, L-system modeling, multi-agent modeling, visualization of physiology, polymerization",
    owner = "bruckner",
    project = "physioillustration",
    timestamp = "2014.12.29"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Mindek-2014-MSS,
    author = "Peter Mindek and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Managing Spatial Selections with Contextual Snapshots",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2014",
    volume = "33",
    number = "8",
    pages = "132--144",
    month = "dec",
    abstract = "Spatial selections are a ubiquitous concept in visualization. By localizing
    particular features, they can be analysed and compared in different
    views. However, the semantics of such selections often depend on
    specific parameter settings and it can be difficult to reconstruct
    them without additional information. In this paper, we present the
    concept of contextual snapshots as an effective means for managing
    spatial selections in visualized data. The selections are automatically
    associated with the context in which they have been created. Contextual
    snapshots can also be used as the basis for interactive integrated
    and linked views, which enable in-place investigation and comparison
    of multiple visual representations of data. Our approach is implemented
    as a flexible toolkit with well-defined interfaces for integration
    into existing systems. We demonstrate the power and generality of
    our techniques by applying them to several distinct scenarios such
    as the visualization of simulation data, the analysis of historical
    documents and the display of anatomical data.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Mindek-2014-MSS.pdf",
    images = "images/Mindek-2014-MSS.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Mindek-2014-MSS.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rxEf-Okp8Xo",
    doi = "10.1111/cgf.12406",
    keywords = "interaction, visual analytics, spatial selections, annotations",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/downloads/csl/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Parulek-2014-CLV,
    author = "Julius Parulek and Daniel J{\"o}nsson and Timo Ropinski and Stefan Bruckner and Anders Ynnerman and Ivan Viola",
    title = "Continuous Levels-of-Detail and Visual Abstraction for Seamless Molecular Visualization",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2014",
    volume = "33",
    number = "6",
    pages = "276--287",
    month = "sep",
    abstract = "Molecular visualization is often challenged with rendering of large
    molecular structures in real time. We introduce a novel approach
    that enables us to show even large protein complexes. Our method
    is based on the level-of-detail concept, where we exploit three different
    abstractions combined in one visualization. Firstly, molecular surface
    abstraction exploits three different surfaces, solvent-excluded surface
    (SES), Gaussian kernels and van der Waals spheres, combined as one
    surface by linear interpolation. Secondly, we introduce three shading
    abstraction levels and a method for creating seamless transitions
    between these representations. The SES representation with full shading
    and added contours stands in focus while on the other side a sphere
    representation of a cluster of atoms with constant shading and without
    contours provide the context. Thirdly, we propose a hierarchical
    abstraction based on a set of clusters formed on molecular atoms.
    All three abstraction models are driven by one importance function
    classifying the scene into the near-, mid- and far-field. Moreover,
    we introduce a methodology to render the entire molecule directly
    using the A-buffer technique, which further improves the performance.
    The rendering performance is evaluated on series of molecules of
    varying atom counts.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Parulek-2014-CLV.pdf",
    images = "images/Parulek-2014-CLV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Parulek-2014-CLV.png",
    issn = "1467-8659",
    doi = "10.1111/cgf.12349",
    keywords = "level of detail algorithms, implicit surfaces, clustering, scientific visualization",
    project = "physioillustration"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @INCOLLECTION {Pfister-2014-VIC,
    author = "Hanspeter Pfister and Verena Kaynig and Charl P. Botha and Stefan Bruckner and Vincent J. Dercksen and Hans-Christian Hege and Jos B.T.M. Roerdink",
    title = "Visualization in Connectomics",
    booktitle = "Scientific Visualization: Uncertainty, Multifield, Biomedical, and Scalable Visualization",
    publisher = "Springer",
    year = "2014",
    editor = "Min Chen and Hans Hagen and Charles D. Hansen and Christopher R. Johnson and Arie E. Kaufman",
    series = "Mathematics and Visualization",
    chapter = "21",
    pages = "221--245",
    month = "sep",
    abstract = "Connectomics is a branch of neuroscience that attempts to create a
    connectome, i.e., a completemap of the neuronal system and all connections
    between neuronal structures. This representation can be used to understand
    how functional brain states emerge from their underlying anatomical
    structures and how dysfunction and neuronal diseases arise. We review
    the current state-of-the-art of visualization and image processing
    techniques in the field of connectomics and describe a number of
    challenges. After a brief summary of the biological background and
    an overview of relevant imaging modalities, we review current techniques
    to extract connectivit",
    pdf = "pdfs/Pfister-2014-VIC.pdf",
    images = "images/Pfister-2014-VIC.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Pfister-2014-VIC.png",
    doi = "10.1007/978-1-4471-6497-5_21",
    keywords = "connectomics, neuroscience, visualization, imaging",
    owner = "bruckner",
    timestamp = "2014.12.30",
    url = "http://www.springer.com/mathematics/computational+science+%26+engineering/book/978-1-4471-6496-8"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Rautek-2014-VSI,
    author = "Peter Rautek and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Markus Hadwiger",
    title = "ViSlang: A System for Interpreted Domain-Specific Languages for Scientific Visualization",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2014",
    volume = "20",
    number = "12",
    pages = "2388--2396",
    month = "dec",
    abstract = "Researchers from many domains use scientific visualization in their
    daily practice. Existing implementations of algorithms usually come
    with a graphical user interface (high-level interface), or as software
    library or source code (low-level interface). In this paper we present
    a system that integrates domain-specific languages (DSLs) and facilitates
    the creation of new DSLs. DSLs provide an effective interface for
    domain scientists avoiding the difficulties involved with low-level
    interfaces and at the same time offering more flexibility than high-level
    interfaces. We describe the design and implementation of ViSlang,
    an interpreted language specifically tailored for scientific visualization.
    A major contribution of our design is the extensibility of the ViSlang
    language. Novel DSLs that are tailored to the problems of the domain
    can be created and integrated into ViSlang. We show that our approach
    can be added to existing user interfaces to increase the flexibility
    for expert users on demand, but at the same time does not interfere
    with the user experience of novice users. To demonstrate the flexibility
    of our approach we present new DSLs for volume processing, querying
    and visualization. We report the implementation effort for new DSLs
    and compare our approach with Matlab and Python implementations in
    terms of run-time performance.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Rautek-2014-VSI.pdf",
    images = "images/Rautek-2014-VSI.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Rautek-2014-VSI.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DbWazwyMRNw",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2014.2346318",
    event = "IEEE VIS 2014",
    keywords = "domain-specific languages, volume visualization, volume visualization framework",
    location = "Paris, France",
    url = "http://vcc.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Pub-ViSlang-Sys-Int-Dom-Spe-Lang-SC.aspx"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Schmidt-2014-YMC,
    author = "Johanna Schmidt and Reinhold Preiner and Thomas Auzinger and Michael Wimmer and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "YMCA - Your Mesh Comparison Application",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of IEEE VAST 2014",
    year = "2014",
    pages = "153--62",
    month = "nov",
    abstract = "Polygonal meshes can be created in several different ways. In this
    paper we focus on the reconstruction of meshes from point clouds,
    which are sets of points in 3D. Several algorithms that tackle this
    task already exist, but they have different benefits and drawbacks,
    which leads to a large number of possible reconstruction results
    (i.e., meshes). The evaluation of those techniques requires extensive
    comparisons between different meshes which is up to now done by either
    placing images of rendered meshes side-by-side, or by encoding differences
    by heat maps. A major drawback of both approaches is that they do
    not scale well with the number of meshes. This paper introduces a
    new comparative visual analysis technique for 3D meshes which enables
    the simultaneous comparison of several meshes and allows for the
    interactive exploration of their differences. Our approach gives
    an overview of the differences of the input meshes in a 2D view.
    By selecting certain areas of interest, the user can switch to a
    3D representation and explore the spatial differences in detail.
    To inspect local variations, we provide a magic lens tool in 3D.
    The location and size of the lens provide further information on
    the variations of the reconstructions in the selected area. With
    our comparative visualization approach, differences between several
    mesh reconstruction algorithms can be easily localized and inspected.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Schmidt-2014-YMC.pdf",
    images = "images/Schmidt-2014-YMC.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Schmidt-2014-YMC.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1s-AmFCQRzM",
    doi = "10.1109/VAST.2014.7042491",
    event = "IEEE VIS 2014",
    keywords = "visual analysis, comparative visualization, 3D data exploration, focus+context, mesh comparison",
    location = "Paris, France",
    proceedings = "Proceedings of IEEE VAST 2014",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2014/ymca/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Kolesar-2014-IIP,
    author = "Ivan Kolesar and Julius Parulek and Ivan Viola and Stefan Bruckner and Anne-Kristin Stavrum and Helwig Hauser",
    title = "Interactively Illustrating Polymerization using Three-level Model Fusion",
    journal = "BMC Bioinformatics",
    year = "2014",
    volume = "15",
    pages = "345",
    month = "oct",
    abstract = "Research in cell biology is steadily contributing new knowledge about
    many aspects of physiological processes, both with respect to the
    involved molecular structures as well as their related function.
    Illustrations of the spatio-temporal development of such processes
    are not only used in biomedical education, but also can serve scientists
    as an additional platform for in-silico experiments. Results In this
    paper, we contribute a new, three-level modeling approach to illustrate
    physiological processes from the class of polymerization at different
    time scales. We integrate physical and empirical modeling, according
    to which approach best suits the different involved levels of detail,
    and we additionally enable a form of interactive steering, while
    the process is illustrated. We demonstrate the suitability of our
    approach in the context of several polymerization processes and report
    from a first evaluation with domain experts. Conclusion We conclude
    that our approach provides a new, hybrid modeling approach for illustrating
    the process of emergence in physiology, embedded in a densely filled
    environment. Our approach of a complementary fusion of three systems
    combines the strong points from the different modeling approaches
    and is capable to bridge different spatial and temporal scales.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Kolesar-2014-IIP.pdf",
    images = "images/Kolesar-2014-IIP.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Kolesar-2014-IIP.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMl5nDicmhg",
    doi = "10.1186/1471-2105-15-345",
    keywords = "biochemical visualization, L-system modeling, multi-agent modeling, visualization of physiology, polymerization",
    owner = "bruckner",
    project = "physioillustration",
    timestamp = "2014.12.29",
    url = "http://www.ii.uib.no/vis/projects/physioillustration/research/interactive-molecular-illustration.html"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Swoboda-2014-VQA,
    author = "Nicolas Swoboda and Judith Moosburner and Stefan Bruckner and Jai Y. Yu and Barry J. Dickson and Katja B{\"u}hler",
    title = "Visual and Quantitative Analysis of Higher Order Arborization Overlaps for Neural Circuit Research",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of VCBM 2014",
    year = "2014",
    pages = "107--116",
    month = "sep",
    abstract = "Neuroscientists investigate neural circuits in the brain of the common
    fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to discover how complex behavior
    is generated. Hypothesis building on potential connections between
    individual neurons is an essential step in the discovery of circuits
    that govern a specific behavior. Overlaps of arborizations of two
    or more neurons indicate a potential anatomical connection, i.e.
    the presence of joint synapses responsible for signal transmission
    between neurons. Obviously, the number of higher order overlaps (i.e.
    overlaps of three and more arborizations) increases exponentially
    with the number of neurons under investigation making it almost impossible
    to precompute quantitative information for all possible combinations.
    Thus, existing solutions are restricted to pairwise comparison of
    overlaps as they are relying on precomputed overlap quantification.
    Analyzing overlaps by visual inspection of more than two arborizations
    in 2D sections or in 3D is impeded by visual clutter or occlusion.
    This work contributes a novel tool that complements existing methods
    for potential connectivity exploration by providing for the first
    time the possibility to compute and visualize higher order arborization
    overlaps on the fly and to interactively explore this information
    in its spatial anatomical context and on a quantitative level. Qualitative
    evaluation with neuroscientists and non-expert users demonstrated
    the utility and usability of the tool.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Swoboda-2014-VQA.pdf",
    images = "images/Swoboda-2014-VQA.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Swoboda-2014-VQA.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iW2iVppPnsE",
    note = "VCBM 2014 Best Paper Honorable Mention",
    doi = "10.2312/vcbm.20141189",
    event = "VCBM 2014",
    keywords = "visual analysis, neurobiology",
    location = "Vienna, Austria"
    }

2013

    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Patel-2013-ICS,
    author = "Daniel Patel and Veronika \v{S}olt{\'e}szov{\'a} and Jan Martin Nordbotten and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Instant Convolution Shadows for Volumetric Detail Mapping",
    journal = "ACM Transactions on Graphics",
    year = "2013",
    volume = "32",
    number = "5",
    pages = "154:1--154:18",
    month = "sep",
    abstract = "In this article, we present a method for rendering dynamic scenes
    featuring translucent procedural volumetric detail with all-frequency
    soft shadows being cast from objects residing inside the view frustum.
    Our approach is based on an approximation of physically correct shadows
    from distant Gaussian area light sources positioned behind the view
    plane, using iterative convolution. We present a theoretical and
    empirical analysis of this model and propose an efficient class of
    convolution kernels which provide high quality at interactive frame
    rates. Our GPU-based implementation supports arbitrary volumetric
    detail maps, requires no precomputation, and therefore allows for
    real-time modi?cation of all rendering parameters.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Patel-2013-ICS.pdf",
    images = "images/Patel-2013-ICS.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Patel-2013-ICS.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lhGWgew3HXY,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XrhYjgQxfb0",
    doi = "10.1145/2492684",
    keywords = "shadows, volumetric effects, procedural texturing, filtering",
    project = "geoillustrator",
    url = "http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2492684"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Mistelbauer-2013-VVC,
    author = "Gabriel Mistelbauer and Anca Morar and Andrej Varchola and R{\"u}diger Schernthaner and Ivan Baclija and Arnold K{\"o}chl and Armin Kanitsar and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Vessel Visualization using Curvicircular Feature Aggregation",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2013",
    volume = "32",
    number = "3",
    pages = "231--240",
    month = "jun",
    abstract = "Radiological investigations are common medical practice for the diagnosis
    of peripheral vascular diseases. Existing visualization methods such
    as Curved Planar Reformation (CPR) depict calcifications on vessel
    walls to determine if blood is still able to flow. While it is possible
    with conventional CPR methods to examine the whole vessel lumen by
    rotating around the centerline of a vessel, we propose Curvicircular
    Feature Aggregation (CFA), which aggregates these rotated images
    into a single view. By eliminating the need for rotation, vessels
    can be investigated by inspecting only one image. This method can
    be used as a guidance and visual analysis tool for treatment planning.
    We present applications of this technique in the medical domain and
    give feedback from radiologists.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Mistelbauer-2013-VVC.pdf",
    images = "images/Mistelbauer-2013-VVC.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Mistelbauer-2013-VVC.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WwF5GPOs1pA",
    doi = "10.1111/cgf.12110",
    event = "EuroVis 2013",
    keywords = "medical visualization, vessel visualization, vessel reformation",
    location = "Leipzig, Germany",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2013/mistelbauer-2013-cfa/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Auzinger-2013-VVC,
    author = "Thomas Auzinger and Gabriel Mistelbauer and Ivan Baclija and R{\"u}diger Schernthaner and Arnold K{\"o}chl and Michael Wimmer and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Vessel Visualization using Curved Surface Reformation",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2013",
    volume = "19",
    number = "12",
    pages = "2858--2867",
    month = "dec",
    abstract = "Visualizations of vascular structures are frequently used in radiological  investigations to detect and analyze vascular diseases. Obstructions  of the blood flow through a vessel are one of the main interests  of physicians, and several methods have been proposed to aid the  visual assessment of calcifications on vessel walls. Curved Planar  Reformation (CPR) is a wide-spread method that is designed for peripheral  arteries which exhibit one dominant direction. To analyze the lumen  of arbitrarily oriented vessels, Centerline Reformation (CR) has  been proposed. Both methods project the vascular structures into  2D image space in order to reconstruct the vessel lumen. In this  paper, we propose Curved Surface Reformation (CSR), a technique that  computes the vessel lumen fully in 3D. This offers high-quality interactive  visualizations of vessel lumina and does not suffer from problems  of earlier methods such as ambiguous visibility cues or premature  discretization of centerline data. Our method maintains exact visibility  information until the final query of the 3D lumina data. We also  present feedback from several domain experts.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Auzinger-2013-VVC.pdf",
    images = "images/Auzinger-2013-VVC.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Auzinger-2013-VVC.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rESIFaO_-Gs",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2013.215",
    event = "IEEE VIS 2013",
    keywords = "volume Rendering, reformation, vessel, surface approximation",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2013/Auzinger_Mistelbauer_2013_CSR/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Schmidt-2013-VVA,
    author = "Johanna Schmidt and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "VAICo: Visual Analysis for Image Comparison",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2013",
    volume = "19",
    number = "12",
    pages = "2090--2099",
    month = "dec",
    abstract = "Scientists, engineers, and analysts are confronted with ever larger
    and more complex sets of data, whose analysis poses special challenges.
    In many situations it is necessary to compare two or more datasets.
    Hence there is a need for comparative visualization tools to help
    analyze differences or similarities among datasets. In this paper
    an approach for comparative visualization for sets of images is presented.
    Well-established techniques for comparing images frequently place
    them side-by-side. A major drawback of such approaches is that they
    do not scale well. Other image comparison methods encode differences
    in images by abstract parameters like color. In this case information
    about the underlying image data gets lost. This paper introduces
    a new method for visualizing differences and similarities in large
    sets of images which preserves contextual information, but also allows
    the detailed analysis of subtle variations. Our approach identifies
    local changes and applies cluster analysis techniques to embed them
    in a hierarchy. The results of this process are then presented in
    an interactive web application which allows users to rapidly explore
    the space of differences and drill-down on particular features. We
    demonstrate the flexibility of our approach by applying it to multiple
    distinct domains.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Schmidt-2013-VVA.pdf",
    images = "images/Schmidt-2013-VVA.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Schmidt-2013-VVA.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wfBqKZLVszk",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2013.213",
    event = "IEEE VIS 2013",
    keywords = "focus+context visualization, image set comparison, comparative visualization",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2013/schmidt-2013-vaico/"
    }
    [PDF] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Mindek-2013-VPE,
    author = "Peter Mindek and Stefan Bruckner and Peter Rautek and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Visual Parameter Exploration in {GPU} Shader Space",
    journal = "Journal of WSCG",
    year = "2013",
    volume = "21",
    number = "3",
    pages = "225--234",
    month = "jun",
    abstract = "The wide availability of high-performance GPUs has made the use of
    shader programs in visualization ubiquitous.Understanding shaders
    is a challenging task. Frequently it is difficult to mentally reconstruct
    the nature and types of transformations applied to the underlying
    data during the visualization process. We propose a method for the
    visual analysis of GPU shaders, which allows the flexible exploration
    and investigation of algorithms, parameters, and their effects. We
    introduce a method for extracting feature vectors composed of several
    attributes of the shader, as well as a direct manipulation interface
    for assigning semantics to them. The user interactively classifies
    pixels of images which are rendered with the investigated shader.
    The two resulting classes, a positive class and a negative one, are
    employed to steer the visualization. Based on this information, we
    can extract a wide variety of additional attributes and visualize
    their relation to this classification. Our system allows an interactive
    exploration of shader space and we demonstrate its utility for several
    different applications.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Mindek-2013-VPE.pdf",
    images = "images/Mindek-2013-VPE.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Mindek-2013-VPE.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sk7EXvqCoxs",
    keywords = "parameter space exploration, shader augmentation",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2013/mindek-2013-pel/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Mindek-2013-CSE,
    author = "Peter Mindek and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Contextual Snapshots: Enriched Visualization with Interactive Spatial Annotations",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of SCCG 2013",
    year = "2013",
    pages = "59--66",
    month = "may",
    abstract = "Spatial selections are a ubiquitous concept in visualization. By localizing
    particular features, they can be analyzed and compared in different
    views. However, the semantics of such selections are often dependent
    on other parameter settings and it can be difficult to reconstruct
    them without additional information. In this paper, we present the
    concept of contextual snapshots as an effective means for managing
    spatial selections in visualized data. The selections are automatically
    associated with the context in which they have been created. Contextual
    snapshots can be also used as the basis for interactive integrated
    and linked views, which enable in-place investigation and comparison
    of multiple visual representations of data. Our approach is implemented
    as a flexible toolkit with welldefined interfaces for integration
    into existing systems. We demonstrate the power and generality of
    our techniques by applying them to several distinct scenarios such
    as the visualization of simulation data and the analysis of historical
    documents.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Mindek-2013-CSE.pdf",
    images = "images/Mindek-2013-CSE.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Mindek-2013-CSE.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=djuqJgixUCs",
    note = "SCCG 2013 Best Paper Award",
    doi = "10.1145/2508244.2508251",
    keywords = "spatial selections, annotations, linked views, provenance",
    location = "Smolenice, Slovakia",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2013/mindek-2013-csl/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Karimov-2013-VSV,
    author = "Alexey Karimov and Gabriel Mistelbauer and Johanna Schmidt and Peter Mindek and Elisabeth Schmidt and Timur Sharipov and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "ViviSection: Skeleton-based Volume Editing",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2013",
    volume = "32",
    number = "3",
    pages = "461--470",
    month = "jun",
    abstract = "Volume segmentation is important in many applications, particularly
    in the medical domain. Most segmentation techniques, however, work
    fully automatically only in very restricted scenarios and cumbersome
    manual editing of the results is a common task. In this paper, we
    introduce a novel approach for the editing of segmentation results.
    Our method exploits structural features of the segmented object to
    enable intuitive and robust correction and verification. We demonstrate
    that our new approach can significantly increase the segmentation
    quality even in difficult cases such as in the presence of severe
    pathologies.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Karimov-2013-VSV.pdf",
    images = "images/Karimov-2013-VSV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Karimov-2013-VSV.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4s12ZbUyHiY",
    doi = "10.1111/cgf.12133",
    event = "EuroVis 2013",
    keywords = "volume visualization, volume editing, segmentation, interaction",
    location = "Leipzig, Germany",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2013/karimov-2013-vivisection/"
    }

2012

    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Mistelbauer-2012-SSV,
    author = "Gabriel Mistelbauer and Hamed Bouzari and R{\"u}diger Schernthaner and Ivan Baclija and Arnold K{\"o}chl and Stefan Bruckner and Milos Sr{\'a}mek and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Smart Super Views - A Knowledge-Assisted Interface for Medical Visualization",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of IEEE VAST 2012",
    year = "2012",
    pages = "163--172",
    month = "oct",
    publisher = "IEEE Computer Society",
    abstract = "Due to the ever growing volume of acquired data and information, users
    have to be constantly aware of the methods for their exploration
    and for interaction. Of these, not each might be applicable to the
    data at hand or might reveal the desired result. Owing to this, innovations
    may be used inappropriately and users may become skeptical. In this
    paper we propose a knowledge-assisted interface for medical visualization,
    which reduces the necessary effort to use new visualization methods,
    by providing only the most relevant ones in a smart way. Consequently,
    we are able to expand such a system with innovations without the
    users to worry about when, where, and especially how they may or
    should use them. We present an application of our system in the medical
    domain and give qualitative feedback from domain experts.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Mistelbauer-2012-SSV.pdf",
    images = "images/Mistelbauer-2012-SSV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Mistelbauer-2012-SSV.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cZREOedW7c4",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1109/VAST.2012.6400555",
    keywords = "knowledge-based visualization, medical visualization, integrated views",
    location = "Seattle, WA, USA",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2012/mistelbauer-2012-ssv/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [VID] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Birkeland-2012-IMC,
    author = "{\AA}smund Birkeland and Stefan Bruckner and Andrea Brambilla and Ivan Viola",
    title = "Illustrative Membrane Clipping",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2012",
    volume = "31",
    number = "3",
    pages = "905--914",
    month = "jun",
    abstract = "Clipping is a fast, common technique for resolving occlusions. It
    only requires simple interaction, is easily understandable, and thus
    has been very popular for volume exploration. However, a drawback
    of clipping is that the technique indiscriminately cuts through features.
    Illustrators, for example, consider the structures in the vicinity
    of the cut when visualizing complex spatial data and make sure that
    smaller structures near the clipping plane are kept in the image
    and not cut into fragments. In this paper we present a new technique,
    which combines the simple clipping interaction with automated selective
    feature preservation using an elastic membrane. In order to prevent
    cutting objects near the clipping plane, the deformable membrane
    uses underlying data properties to adjust itself to salient structures.
    To achieve this behaviour, we translate data attributes into a potential
    field which acts on the membrane, thus moving the problem of deformation
    into the soft-body dynamics domain. This allows us to exploit existing
    GPU-based physics libraries which achieve interactive frame rates.
    For manual adjustment, the user can insert additional potential fields,
    as well as pinning the membrane to interesting areas. We demonstrate
    that our method can act as a flexible and non-invasive replacement
    of traditional clipping planes.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Birkeland-2012-IMC.pdf",
    vid = "vids/Birkeland12Illustrative.avi",
    images = "images/Birkeland12Illustrative01.png, images/Birkeland12Illustrative02.png, images/Birkeland12Illustrative03.png",
    thumbnails = "images/Birkeland-2012-IMC.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I89_--zul6c",
    note = "presented at EuroVis 2012",
    doi = "10.1111/j.1467-8659.2012.03083.x",
    event = "EuroVis 2012",
    keywords = "clipping, volume rendering, illustrative visualization",
    location = "Vienna, Austria",
    project = "illustrasound,medviz,illvis",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2012/Birkeland-2012-IMC/"
    }
    [PDF] [Bibtex]
    @MISC {Bruckner-2012-VEA-Thesis,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Visual Exploration and Analysis of Volumetric Data",
    howpublished = "Habilitation Thesis",
    month = "mar",
    year = "2012",
    abstract = "Information technology has led to a rapid increase in the amount of
    data that arise in areas such as biology, medicine, climate science,
    and engineering. In many cases, these data are volumetric in nature,
    i.e., they describe the distribution of one or several quantities
    over a region in space. Volume visualization is the field of research
    which investigates the transformation of such data sets into images
    for purposes such as understanding structure or identifying features.
    This thesis presents work to aid this process by improving the interactive
    depiction, analysis, and exploration of volumetric data.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2012-VEA-Thesis.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2012-VEA-Thesis.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2012-VEA-Thesis.png",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    keywords = "volume visualization, visual analysis, visual exploration",
    school = "Vienna University of Technology, Austria",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2012/Bruckner-2012-VEA/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Herghelegiu-2012-BPV,
    author = "Paul Herghelegiu and Vasile Manta and Radu Perin and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Biopsy Planner - Visual Analysis for Needle Pathway Planning in Deep Seated Brain Tumor Biopsy",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2012",
    volume = "31",
    number = "3",
    pages = "1085--1094",
    month = "jun",
    abstract = "Biopsies involve taking samples from living tissue using a biopsy
    needle. In current clinical practice they are a first mandatory step
    before any further medical actions are planned. Performing a biopsy
    on a deep seated brain tumor requires considerable time for establishing
    and validating the desired biopsy needle pathway to avoid damage.
    In this paper, we present a system for the visualization, analysis,
    and validation of biopsy needle pathways. Our system uses a multi-level
    approach for identifying stable needle placements which minimize
    the risk of hitting blood vessels. This is one of the major dangers
    in this type of intervention. Our approach helps in identifying and
    visualizing the point on the pathway that is closest to a surrounding
    blood vessel, requiring a closer inspection by the neurosurgeon.
    An evaluation by medical experts is performed to demonstrate the
    utility of our system.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Herghelegiu-2012-BPV.pdf",
    images = "images/Herghelegiu-2012-BPV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Herghelegiu-2012-BPV.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBEv-D_0Zm8",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1111/j.1467-8659.2012.03101.x",
    event = "EuroVis 2012",
    keywords = "biopsy planning, medical visualization, visual analysis",
    location = "Vienna, Austria",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2012/Herghelegiu-2012-BPV/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Ropinski-2012-UBT,
    author = "Timo Ropinski and Stefan Diepenbrock and Stefan Bruckner and Klaus Hinrichs and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Unified Boundary-Aware Texturing for Interactive Volume Rendering",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2012",
    volume = "18",
    number = "11",
    pages = "1942--1955",
    month = "nov",
    abstract = "In this paper, we describe a novel approach for applying texture mapping
    to volumetric data sets. In contrast to previous approaches, the
    presented technique enables a unified integration of 2D and 3D textures
    and thus allows to emphasize material boundaries as well as volumetric
    regions within a volumetric data set at the same time. One key contribution
    of this paper is a parametrization technique for volumetric data
    sets, which takes into account material boundaries and volumetric
    regions. Using this technique, the resulting parametrizations of
    volumetric data sets enable texturing effects which create a higher
    degree of realism in volume rendered images. We evaluate the quality
    of the parametrization and demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed
    concepts by combining volumetric texturing with volumetric lighting
    models to generate photorealistic volume renderings. Furthermore,
    we show the applicability in the area of illustrative visualization.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Ropinski-2012-UBT.pdf",
    images = "images/Ropinski-2012-UBT.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Ropinski-2012-UBT.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kieFLOz22Dg",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2011.285",
    keywords = "interactive volume rendering, volumetric texturing",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2012/Ropinski-2012-UBT/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Csebfalvi-2012-IOM,
    author = "Bal{\'a}zs Csebfalvi and Bal{\'a}zs T{\'o}th and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Illumination-Driven Opacity Modulation for Expressive Volume Rendering",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of VMV 2012",
    year = "2012",
    pages = "103--109",
    month = "nov",
    abstract = "Using classical volume visualization, typically a couple of isosurface
    layers are rendered semi-transparently to show the internal structures
    contained in the data. However, the opacity transfer function is
    often difficult to specify such that all the isosurfaces are of high
    contrast and sufficiently perceivable. In this paper, we propose
    a volumerendering technique which ensures that the different layers
    contribute to fairly different regions of the image space. Since
    the overlapping between the effected regions is reduced, an outer
    translucent isosurface does not decrease significantly the contrast
    of a partially hidden inner isosurface. Therefore, the layers of
    the data become visually well separated. Traditional transfer functions
    assign color and opacity values to the voxels depending on the density
    and the gradient. In contrast, we assign also different illumination
    directions to different materials, and modulate the opacities view-dependently
    based on the surface normals and the directions of the light sources,
    which are fixed to the viewing angle. We will demonstrate that this
    model allows an expressive visualization of volumetric data.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Csebfalvi-2012-IOM.pdf",
    images = "images/Csebfalvi-2012-IOM.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Csebfalvi-2012-IOM.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZvB-Vb7aa4o",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.2312/PE/VMV/VMV12/103-109",
    event = "VMV 2012",
    keywords = "illustrative visualization, illumination, volume rendering",
    location = "Magdeburg, Germany",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2012/Csebfalvi-2012-IOM/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Ford-2012-HRV,
    author = "Steven Ford and Ivan Viola and Stefan Bruckner and Hans Torp and Gabriel Kiss",
    title = "HeartPad: Real-Time Visual Guidance for Cardiac Ultrasound",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of WASA 2012",
    year = "2012",
    pages = "169--176",
    month = "nov",
    abstract = "Medical ultrasound is a challenging modality when it comes to image
    interpretation. The goal we address in this work is to assist the
    ultrasound examiner and partially alleviate the burden of interpretation.
    We propose to address this goal with visualization that provides
    clear cues on the orientation and the correspondence between anatomy
    and the data being imaged. Our system analyzes the stream of 3D ultrasound
    data and in real-time identifies distinct features that are basis
    for a dynamically deformed mesh model of the heart. The heart mesh
    is composited with the original ultrasound data to create the data-to-anatomy
    correspondence. The visualization is broadcasted over the internet
    allowing, among other opportunities, a direct visualization on the
    patient on a tablet computer. The examiner interacts with the transducer
    and with the visualization parameters on the tablet. Our system has
    been characterized by domain specialist as useful in medical training
    and for navigating occasional ultrasound users.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Ford-2012-HRV.pdf",
    images = "images/Ford-2012-HRV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Ford-2012-HRV.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2d3G7ig-yiQ",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1145/2425296.2425326",
    keywords = "medical visualization, ultrasound",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2012/Ford-2012-HRV/"
    }

2011

    [PDF] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Patel-2011-PEA,
    author = "Daniel Patel and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "PhD Education Through Apprenticeship",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of Eurographics 2011 (Education Papers)",
    year = "2011",
    editor = "S. Maddock, J. Jorge",
    pages = "23--28",
    month = "apr",
    abstract = "We describe and analyze the PhD education in the visualization group
    at the Vienna University of Technology and set the education in a
    larger perspective. Four central mechanisms drive the PhD education
    in Vienna. They are: to require an article-based PhD; to give the
    student freedom to choose research direction; to let students work
    in shared offices towards joint deadlines; and to involve students
    in reviewing articles. This paper describes these mechanisms in detail
    and illustrates their effect.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Patel-2011-PEA.pdf",
    images = "images/Patel-2011-PEA.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Patel-2011-PEA.png",
    keywords = "M., education, visualization, apprenticeship",
    location = "Llandudno, United Kingdom",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2011/patel-2011-PEA/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Haidacher-2011-VAM,
    author = "Martin Haidacher and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Volume Analysis Using Multimodal Surface Similarity",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2011",
    volume = "17",
    number = "12",
    pages = "1969--1978",
    month = "oct",
    abstract = "The combination of volume data acquired by multiple modalities has
    been recognized as an important but challenging task. Modalities
    often differ in the structures they can delineate and their joint
    information can be used to extend the classification space. However,
    they frequently exhibit differing types of artifacts which makes
    the process of exploiting the additional information non-trivial.
    In this paper, we present a framework based on an information-theoretic
    measure of isosurface similarity between different modalities to
    overcome these problems. The resulting similarity space provides
    a concise overview of the differences between the two modalities,
    and also serves as the basis for an improved selection of features.
    Multimodal classification is expressed in terms of similarities and
    dissimilarities between the isosurfaces of individual modalities,
    instead of data value combinations. We demonstrate that our approach
    can be used to robustly extract features in applications such as
    dual energy computed tomography of parts in industrial manufacturing.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Haidacher-2011-VAM.pdf",
    images = "images/Haidacher-2011-VAM.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Haidacher-2011-VAM.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x9ZTUssg8Fk",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2011.258",
    event = "IEEE Visualization 2011",
    keywords = "surface similarity, volume visualization, multimodal data",
    location = "Providence, Rhode Island, USA",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2011/haidacher-2011-VAM/"
    }

2010

    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Haidacher-2010-VVS,
    author = "Martin Haidacher and Daniel Patel and Stefan Bruckner and Armin Kanitsar and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Volume Visualization based on Statistical Transfer-Function Spaces",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of IEEE Pacific Visualization 2010",
    year = "2010",
    pages = "17--24",
    month = "mar",
    abstract = "It is a difficult task to design transfer functions for noisy data.
    In traditional transfer-function spaces, data values of different
    materials overlap. In this paper we introduce a novel statistical
    transfer-function space which in the presence of noise, separates
    different materials in volume data sets. Our method adaptively estimates
    statistical properties, i.e. the mean value and the standard deviation,
    of the data values in the neighborhood of each sample point. These
    properties are used to define a transfer-function space which enables
    the distinction of different materials. Additionally, we present
    a novel approach for interacting with our new transfer-function space
    which enables the design of transfer functions based on statistical
    properties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that statistical information
    can be applied to enhance visual appearance in the rendering process.
    We compare the new method with 1D, 2D, and LH transfer functions
    to demonstrate its usefulness.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Haidacher-2010-VVS.pdf",
    images = "images/Haidacher-2010-VVS.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Haidacher-2010-VVS.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=firkkbHdZ5o",
    doi = "10.1109/PACIFICVIS.2010.5429615",
    keywords = "transfer function, statistics, shading, noisy data, classification",
    location = "Taipei, Taiwan",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2010/haidacher_2010_statTF/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Bruckner-2010-RES,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and Torsten M{\"o}ller",
    title = "Result-Driven Exploration of Simulation Parameter Spaces for Visual Effects Design",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2010",
    volume = "16",
    number = "6",
    pages = "1467--1475",
    month = "oct",
    abstract = "Graphics artists commonly employ physically-based simulation for the
    generation of effects such as smoke, explosions, and similar phenomena.
    The task of finding the correct parameters for a desired result,
    however, is difficult and time-consuming as current tools provide
    little to no guidance. In this paper, we present a new approach for
    the visual exploration of such parameter spaces. Given a three-dimensional
    scene description, we utilize sampling and spatio-temporal clustering
    techniques to generate a concise overview of the achievable variations
    and their temporal evolution. Our visualization system then allows
    the user to explore the simulation space in a goal-oriented manner.
    Animation sequences with a set of desired characteristics can be
    composed using a novel search-by-example approach and interactive
    direct volume rendering is employed to provide instant visual feedback.
    A user study was performed to evaluate the applicability of our system
    in production use.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2010-RES.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2010-RES.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2010-RES.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JunXyxULCpo",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2010.190",
    event = "IEEE Visualization 2010",
    keywords = "visual exploration, visual effects, clustering, time-dependent volume data",
    location = "Salt Lake City, Utah, USA",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2010/brucker-2010-RES/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Solteszova-2010-MOS,
    author = "Veronika \v{S}olt{\'e}szov{\'a} and Daniel Patel and Stefan Bruckner and Ivan Viola",
    title = "A Multidirectional Occlusion Shading Model for Direct Volume Rendering",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2010",
    volume = "29",
    number = "3",
    pages = "883--891",
    month = "jun",
    abstract = "In this paper, we present a novel technique which simulates directional
    light scattering for more realistic interactive visualization of
    volume data. Our method extends the recent directional occlusion
    shading model by enabling light source positioning with practically
    no performance penalty. Light transport is approximated using a tilted
    cone-shaped function which leaves elliptic footprints in the opacity
    buffer during slice-based volume rendering. We perform an incremental
    blurring operation on the opacity buffer for each slice in front-to-back
    order. This buffer is then used to define the degree of occlusion
    for the subsequent slice. Our method is capable of generating high-quality
    soft shadowing effects, allows interactive modification of all illumination
    and rendering parameters, and requires no pre-computation.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Solteszova-2010-MOS.pdf",
    images = "images/Solteszova-2010-MOS.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Solteszova-2010-MOS.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V4y0BVKV_bw",
    doi = "10.1111/j.1467-8659.2009.01695.x",
    event = "EuroVis 2010",
    keywords = "global illumination, volume rendering, shadows, optical model",
    location = "Bordeaux, France",
    project = "illustrasound,medviz,illvis",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2010/solteszova-2010-MOS/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Bruckner-2010-HVC,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and Peter Rautek and Ivan Viola and Mike Roberts and Mario Costa Sousa and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Hybrid Visibility Compositing and Masking for Illustrative Rendering",
    journal = "Computers \& Graphics",
    year = "2010",
    volume = "34",
    number = "4",
    pages = "361--369",
    month = "aug",
    abstract = "In this paper, we introduce a novel framework for the compositing
    of interactively rendered 3D layers tailored to the needs of scientific
    illustration. Currently, traditional scientific illustrations are
    produced in a series of composition stages, combining different pictorial
    elements using 2D digital layering. Our approach extends the layer
    metaphor into 3D without giving up the advantages of 2D methods.
    The new compositing approach allows for effects such as selective
    transparency, occlusion overrides, and soft depth buffering. Furthermore,
    we show how common manipulation techniques such as masking can be
    integrated into this concept. These tools behave just like in 2D,
    but their influence extends beyond a single viewpoint. Since the
    presented approach makes no assumptions about the underlying rendering
    algorithms, layers can be generated based on polygonal geometry,
    volumetric data, pointbased representations, or others. Our implementation
    exploits current graphics hardware and permits real-time interaction
    and rendering.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2010-HVC.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2010-HVC.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2010-HVC.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V-Jbgpd9OjU,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tsc30U4x3ic,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I4x5QtG25Tc",
    doi = "10.1016/j.cag.2010.04.003",
    keywords = "compositing, masking, illustration",
    project = "illustrasound,medviz,illvis",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2010/bruckner-2010-HVC/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Sikachev-2010-DFC,
    author = "Peter Sikachev and Peter Rautek and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Dynamic Focus+Context for Volume Rendering",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of VMV 2010",
    year = "2010",
    pages = "331--338",
    address = "University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany",
    month = "nov",
    abstract = "Interactive visualization is widely used in many applications for
    efficient representation of complex data. Many techniques make use
    of the focus+context approach in a static manner. These techniques
    do not fully make use of the interaction semantics. In this paper
    we present a dynamic focus+context approach that highlights salient
    features during user interaction. We explore rotation, panning, and
    zooming interaction semantics and propose several methods of changing
    visual representations, based on a suggested engagement-estimation
    method. We use DVR-MIP interpolation and a radial opacity-change
    approach, exploring rotation, panning, and zooming semantics. Our
    approach adds short animations during user interaction that help
    to explore the data efficiently and aid the user in the detection
    of unknown features.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Sikachev-2010-DFC.pdf",
    images = "images/Sikachev-2010-DFC.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Sikachev-2010-DFC.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6x-gVBHYAcA,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TgotxmoepB8,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8K67zA8pbAo",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.2312/PE/VMV/VMV10/331-338",
    keywords = "focus+contex, volume rendering, view-dependent visualization, level-of-detail techniques, nonphotorealistic techniques, user interaction",
    location = "Siegen, Germany",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2010/sikachev-2010-DFC/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @INCOLLECTION {Bruckner-2010-IFC,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Klaus Mueller and Bernhard Preim and Deborah Silver",
    title = "Illustrative Focus+Context Approaches in Interactive Volume Visualization",
    booktitle = "Scientific Visualization: Advanced Concepts",
    publisher = "Schloss Dagstuhl -- Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik",
    year = "2010",
    editor = "Hans Hagen",
    series = "Dagstuhl Follow-Ups",
    chapter = "10",
    pages = "136--162",
    month = "aug",
    abstract = "Illustrative techniques are a new and exciting direction in visualization
    research. Traditional techniques which have been used by scientific
    illustrators for centuries are re-examined under the light of modern
    computer technology. In this paper, we discuss the use of the focus+context
    concept for the illustrative visualization of volumetric data. We
    give an overview of the state-of-the-art and discuss recent approaches
    which employ this concept in novel ways.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2010-IFC.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2010-IFC.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2010-IFC.png",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.4230/DFU.SciViz.2010.136",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2010/bruckner-2010-IFC/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Patel-2010-SVV,
    author = "Daniel Patel and Stefan Bruckner and Ivan Viola and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Seismic Volume Visualization for Horizon Extraction",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of IEEE Pacific Visualization 2010",
    year = "2010",
    pages = "73--80",
    month = "mar",
    abstract = "Seismic horizons indicate change in rock properties and are central
    in geoscience interpretation. Traditional interpretation systems
    involve time consuming and repetitive manual volumetric seeding for
    horizon growing. We present a novel system for rapidly interpreting
    and visualizing seismic volumetric data. First we extract horizon
    surface-parts by preprocessing the seismic data. Then during interaction
    the user can assemble in realtime the horizon parts into horizons.
    Traditional interpretation systems use gradient-based illumination
    models in the rendering of the seismic volume and polygon rendering
    of horizon surfaces. We employ realtime gradientfree forward-scattering
    in the rendering of seismic volumes yielding results similar to high-quality
    global illumination. We use an implicit surface representation of
    horizons allowing for a seamless integration of horizon rendering
    and volume rendering. We present a collection of novel techniques
    constituting an interpretation and visualization system highly tailored
    to seismic data interpretation.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Patel-2010-SVV.pdf",
    images = "images/Patel-2010-SVV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Patel-2010-SVV.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YXg4LZsTQdc",
    doi = "10.1109/PACIFICVIS.2010.5429605",
    keywords = "volume visualization, horizon extraction, seismic data",
    location = "Taipei, Taiwan",
    project = "geoillustrator,illvis",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2010/patel-2010-SVV/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Bruckner-2010-ISM,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and Torsten M{\"o}ller",
    title = "Isosurface Similarity Maps",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2010",
    volume = "29",
    number = "3",
    pages = "773--782",
    month = "jun",
    abstract = "In this paper, we introduce the concept of isosurface similarity maps
    for the visualization of volume data. Isosurface similarity maps
    present structural information of a volume data set by depicting
    similarities between individual isosurfaces quantified by a robust
    information-theoretic measure. Unlike conventional histograms, they
    are not based on the frequency of isovalues and/or derivatives and
    therefore provide complementary information. We demonstrate that
    this new representation can be used to guide transfer function design
    and visualization parameter specification. Furthermore, we use isosurface
    similarity to develop an automatic parameter-free method for identifying
    representative isovalues. Using real-world data sets, we show that
    isosurface similarity maps can be a useful addition to conventional
    classification techniques.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2010-ISM.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2010-ISM.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2010-ISM.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NZFqx4QceCA,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQO8fTJJxVg,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDIbmfOAW00",
    note = "EuroVis 2010 Best Paper Award",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1111/j.1467-8659.2009.01689.x",
    event = "EuroVis 2010",
    keywords = "isosurfaces, volume visualization, mutual information, histograms",
    location = "Bordeaux, France",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2010/bruckner-2010-ISM/"
    }

2009

    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Bruckner-2009-BVQ,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and Veronika \v{S}olt{\'e}szov{\'a} and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Ji\v{r}{\'i} Hlad\r{u}vka and Katja B{\"u}hler and Jai Yu and Barry Dickson",
    title = "BrainGazer - Visual Queries for Neurobiology Research",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2009",
    volume = "15",
    number = "6",
    pages = "1497--1504",
    month = "nov",
    abstract = "Neurobiology investigates how anatomical and physiological relationships
    in the nervous system mediate behavior. Molecular genetic techniques,
    applied to species such as the common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster,
    have proven to be an important tool in this research. Large databases
    of transgenic specimens are being built and need to be analyzed to
    establish models of neural information processing. In this paper
    we present an approach for the exploration and analysis of neural
    circuits based on such a database. We have designed and implemented
    BrainGazer, a system which integrates visualization techniques for
    volume data acquired through confocal microscopy as well as annotated
    anatomical structures with an intuitive approach for accessing the
    available information. We focus on the ability to visually query
    the data based on semantic as well as spatial relationships. Additionally,
    we present visualization techniques for the concurrent depiction
    of neurobiological volume data and geometric objects which aim to
    reduce visual clutter. The described system is the result of an ongoing
    interdisciplinary collaboration between neurobiologists and visualization
    researchers.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2009-BVQ.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2009-BVQ.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2009-BVQ.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LB5t3RtLifk",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2009.121",
    event = "IEEE Visualization 2009",
    keywords = "biomedical visualization, neurobiology, visual queries, volume visualization",
    location = "Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2009/bruckner-2009-BVQ/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Bruckner-2009-IVV,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Instant Volume Visualization using Maximum Intensity Difference Accumulation",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2009",
    volume = "28",
    number = "3",
    pages = "775--782",
    month = "jun",
    abstract = "It has long been recognized that transfer function setup for Direct
    Volume Rendering (DVR) is crucial to its usability. However, the
    task of finding an appropriate transfer function is complex and time-consuming
    even for experts. Thus, in many practical applications simpler techniques
    which do not rely on complex transfer functions are employed. One
    common example is Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP) which depicts
    the maximum value along each viewing ray. In this paper, we introduce
    Maximum Intensity Difference Accumulation (MIDA), a new approach
    which combines the advantages of DVR and MIP. Like MIP, MIDA exploits
    common data characteristics and hence does not require complex transfer
    functions to generate good visualization results. It does, however,
    feature occlusion and shape cues similar to DVR. Furthermore, we
    show that MIDA - in addition to being a useful technique in its own
    right- can be used to smoothly transition between DVR and MIP in
    an intuitive manner. MIDA can be easily implemented using volume
    raycasting and achieves real-time performance on current graphics
    hardware.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2009-IVV.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2009-IVV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2009-IVV.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lNwZJXxoLTg,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AR-Zp3S35hs,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xk4J8bkI2-Y,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XApq2rGKMR8",
    issn = "0167-7055",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1111/j.1467-8659.2009.01474.x",
    event = "EuroVis 2009",
    keywords = "illustrative visualization, maximum intensity projection, direct volume rendering",
    location = "Berlin, Germany",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2009/bruckner-2009-IVV/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Kohlmann-2009-CPV,
    author = "Peter Kohlmann and Stefan Bruckner and Armin Kanitsar and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Contextual Picking of Volumetric Structures",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of the IEEE Pacific Visualization 2009",
    year = "2009",
    editor = "Peter Eades, Thomas Ertl, Han-Wei Shen",
    pages = "185--192",
    month = "may",
    abstract = "This paper presents a novel method for the interactive identification
    of contextual interest points within volumetric data by picking on
    a direct volume rendered image. In clinical diagnostics the points
    of interest are often located in the center of anatomical structures.
    In order to derive the volumetric position which allows a convenient
    examination of the intended structure, the system automatically extracts
    contextual meta information from the DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications
    in Medicine) images and the setup of the medical workstation. Along
    a viewing ray for a volumetric picking, the ray profile is analyzed
    for structures which are similar to predefined templates from a knowledge
    base. We demonstrate with our results that the obtained position
    in 3D can be utilized to highlight a structure in 2D slice views,
    to interactively calculate centerlines of tubular objects, or to
    place labels at contextually-defined volumetric positions.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Kohlmann-2009-CPV.pdf",
    images = "images/Kohlmann-2009-CPV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Kohlmann-2009-CPV.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SgyGwePAE7o",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1109/PACIFICVIS.2009.4906855",
    isbn = "978-1-4244-4404-5",
    keywords = "picking, interaction, selection, volume visualization",
    location = "Peking, China",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2009/kohlmann-2009-cp/"
    }

2008

    [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {rautek08illustrative,
    author = "Peter Rautek and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Ivan Viola",
    title = "Illustrative Visualization: New Technology or Useless Tautology?",
    journal = "SIGGRAPH Comput. Graph.",
    year = "2008",
    volume = "42",
    number = "3",
    images = "images/rautek08illustrative.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/rautek08illustrative_thumb.jpg",
    address = "New York, NY, USA",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1408626.1408633",
    project = "illvis",
    publisher = "ACM",
    url = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1408626.1408633"
    }
    [PDF] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Kohlmann-2008-LEI,
    author = "Peter Kohlmann and Stefan Bruckner and Armin Kanitsar and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "LiveSync++: Enhancements of an Interaction Metaphor",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of Graphics Interface 2008",
    year = "2008",
    pages = "81--88",
    month = "may",
    abstract = "The LiveSync interaction metaphor allows an efficient and non-intrusive
    integration of 2D and 3D visualizations in medical workstations.
    This is achieved by synchronizing the 2D slice view with the volumetric
    view. The synchronization is initiated by a simple picking on a structure
    of interest in the slice view. In this paper we present substantial
    enhancements of the existing concept to improve its usability. First,
    an efficient parametrization for the derived parameters is presented,
    which allows hierarchical refinement of the search space for good
    views. Second, the extraction of the feature of interest is performed
    in a way, which is adapting to the volumetric extent of the feature.
    The properties of the extracted features are utilized to adjust a
    predefined transfer function in a feature-enhancing manner. Third,
    a new interaction mode is presented, which allows the integration
    of more knowledge about the user-intended visualization, without
    increasing the interaction effort. Finally, a new clipping technique
    is integrated, which guarantees an unoccluded view on the structure
    of interest while keeping important contextual information.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Kohlmann-2008-LEI.pdf",
    images = "images/Kohlmann-2008-LEI.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Kohlmann-2008-LEI.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Jt8ezi7yjs",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    keywords = "viewpoint selection, linked views, medical visualization, smart interaction",
    location = "Windsor, Ontario, Canada",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2008/kohlmann-2008-lse/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Rautek-2008-IVN,
    author = "Peter Rautek and Stefan Bruckner and Ivan Viola and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Illustrative visualization: new technology or useless tautology?",
    journal = "ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics",
    year = "2008",
    volume = "42",
    number = "3",
    month = "aug",
    abstract = "The computer graphics group at TU Vienna has created some of most
    beautiful and effective illustrative visualizations. In this article,
    they share with us their unique perspective on illustrative visualization.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Rautek-2008-IVN.pdf",
    images = "images/Rautek-2008-IVN.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Rautek-2008-IVN.png",
    doi = "10.1145/1408626.1408633",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2008/Rautek-2008-VF/"
    }
    [PDF] [Bibtex]
    @PHDTHESIS {Bruckner-2008-IIV-Thesis,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Interactive Illustrative Volume Visualization",
    school = "Vienna University of Technology, Austria",
    year = "2008",
    month = "apr",
    abstract = "Illustrations are essential for the effective communication of complex
    subjects. Their production, however, is a difficult and expensive
    task. In recent years, three-dimensional imaging has become a vital
    tool not only in medical diagnosis and treatment planning, but also
    in many technical disciplines (e.g., material inspection), biology,
    and archeology. Modalities such as X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT)
    and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) produce high-resolution volumetric
    scans on a daily basis. It seems counter-intuitive that even though
    such a wealth of data is available, the production of an illustration
    should still require a mainly manual and time-consuming process.
    This thesis is devoted to the computer-assisted generation of illustrations
    directly from volumetric data using advanced visualization techniques.
    The concept of a direct volume illustration system is introduced
    for this purpose. Instead of requiring an additional modeling step,
    this system allows the designer of an illustration to work directly
    on the measured data. Abstraction, a key component of traditional
    illustrations, is used in order to reduce visual clutter, emphasize
    important structures, and reveal hidden detail. Low-level abstraction
    techniques are concerned with the appearance of objects and allow
    flexible artistic shading of structures in volumetric data sets.
    High-level abstraction techniques control which objects are visible.
    For this purpose, novel methods for the generation of ghosted and
    exploded views are introduced. The visualization techniques presented
    in this thesis employ the features of current graphics hardware to
    achieve interactive performance. The resulting system allows the
    generation of expressive illustrations directly from volumetric data
    with applications in medical training, patient education, and scientific
    communication.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2008-IIV-Thesis.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2008-IIV-Thesis.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2008-IIV-Thesis.png",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    keywords = "visual analysis, visual exploration, volume data",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2008/bruckner-2008-IIV/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Rautek-2008-ISI,
    author = "Peter Rautek and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Interaction-Dependent Semantics for Illustrative Volume Rendering",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2008",
    volume = "27",
    number = "3",
    pages = "847--854",
    month = "may",
    abstract = "In traditional illustration the choice of appropriate styles and rendering
    techniques is guided by the intention of the artist. For illustrative
    volume visualizations it is difficult to specify the mapping between
    the 3D data and the visual representation that preserves the intention
    of the user. The semantic layers concept establishes this mapping
    with a linguistic formulation of rules that directly map data features
    to rendering styles. With semantic layers fuzzy logic is used to
    evaluate the user defined illustration rules in a preprocessing step.
    In this paper we introduce interaction-dependent rules that are evaluated
    for each frame and are therefore computationally more expensive.
    Enabling interaction-dependent rules, however, allows the use of
    a new class of semantics, resulting in more expressive interactive
    illustrations. We show that the evaluation of the fuzzy logic can
    be done on the graphics hardware enabling the efficient use of interaction-dependent
    semantics. Further we introduce the flat rendering mode and discuss
    how different rendering parameters are influenced by the rule base.
    Our approach provides high quality illustrative volume renderings
    at interactive frame rates, guided by the specification of illustration
    rules.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Rautek-2008-ISI.pdf",
    images = "images/Rautek-2008-ISI.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Rautek-2008-ISI.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHIl2A50Ico",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1111/j.1467-8659.2008.01216.x",
    event = "Eurographics/ IEEE-VGTC Symposium on Visualization",
    keywords = "volume visualization, illustrative visualization, semantics, interaction",
    location = "Eindhoven, The Netherlands",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2008/Rautek-2008-IDS/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Ruiz-2008-OVR,
    author = "Marc Ruiz and Imma Boada and Ivan Viola and Stefan Bruckner and Miquel Feixas and Mateu Sbert",
    title = "Obscurance-based Volume Rendering Framework",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of Volume Graphics 2008",
    year = "2008",
    pages = "113--120",
    month = "aug",
    abstract = "Obscurances, from which ambient occlusion is a particular case, is
    a technology that produces natural-looking lighting effects in a
    faster way than global illumination. Its application in volume visualization
    is of special interest since it permits us to generate a high quality
    rendering at a low cost. In this paper, we propose an obscurance-based
    framework that allows us to obtain realistic and illustrative volume
    visualizations in an interactive manner. Obscurances can include
    color bleeding effects without additional cost. Moreover, we obtain
    a saliency map from the gradient of obscurances and we show its application
    to enhance volume visualization and to select the most salient views.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Ruiz-2008-OVR.pdf",
    images = "images/Ruiz-2008-OVR.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Ruiz-2008-OVR.png",
    doi = "10.2312/VG/VG-PBG08/113-120",
    keywords = "volume rendering, illustrative visualization, ambient occlusion",
    location = "Los Angeles, CA, USA",
    project = "illvis,medviz",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2008/ruiz-2008-OVR/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Ruiz-2008-SEV,
    author = "Marc Ruiz and Ivan Viola and Imma Boada and Stefan Bruckner and Miquel Feixas and Mateu Sbert",
    title = "Similarity-based Exploded Views",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of Smart Graphics 2008",
    year = "2008",
    pages = "154--165",
    month = "aug",
    abstract = "Exploded views are often used in illustration to overcome the problem
    of occlusion when depicting complex structures. In this paper, we
    propose a volume visualization technique inspired by exploded views
    that partitions the volume into a number of parallel slabs and shows
    them apart from each other. The thickness of slabs is driven by the
    similarity between partitions. We use an information-theoretic technique
    for the generation of exploded views. First, the algorithm identifies
    the viewpoint from which the structure is the highest. Then, the
    partition of the volume into the most informative slabs for exploding
    is obtained using two complementary similarity-based strategies.
    The number of slabs and the similarity parameter are freely adjustable
    by the user.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Ruiz-2008-SEV.pdf",
    images = "images/Ruiz-2008-SEV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Ruiz-2008-SEV.png",
    doi = "10.1007/978-3-540-85412-8_14",
    keywords = "volume visualization, illustrative visualization, exploded views",
    location = "Rennes, France",
    project = "illvis,medviz",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2008/ruiz-2008-SEV/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Haidacher-2008-ITF,
    author = "Martin Haidacher and Stefan Bruckner and Armin Kanitsar and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Information-based Transfer Functions for Multimodal Visualization",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of VCBM 2008",
    year = "2008",
    editor = "C.P Botha, G. Kindlmann, W.J. Niessen, and B. Preim",
    pages = "101--108",
    month = "oct",
    publisher = "Eurographics Association",
    abstract = "Transfer functions are an essential part of volume visualization.
    In multimodal visualization at least two values exist at every sample
    point. Additionally, other parameters, such as gradient magnitude,
    are often retrieved for each sample point. To find a good transfer
    function for this high number of parameters is challenging because
    of the complexity of this task. In this paper we present a general
    information-based approach for transfer function design in multimodal
    visualization which is independent of the used modality types. Based
    on information theory, the complex multi-dimensional transfer function
    space is fused to allow utilization of a well-known 2D transfer function
    with a single value and gradient magnitude as parameters. Additionally,
    a quantity is introduced which enables better separation of regions
    with complementary information. The benefit of the new method in
    contrast to other techniques is a transfer function space which is
    easy to understand and which provides a better separation of different
    tissues. The usability of the new approach is shown on examples of
    different modalities.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Haidacher-2008-ITF.pdf",
    images = "images/Haidacher-2008-ITF.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Haidacher-2008-ITF.png",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.2312/VCBM/VCBM08/101-108",
    isbn = "978-3-905674-13-2",
    issn = "2070-5778",
    keywords = "multimodal visualization, transfer functions, information theory",
    location = "Delft",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2008/haidacher-2008-vcbm/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Bruckner-2008-IVV,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and Peter Kohlmann and Armin Kanitsar and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Integrating Volume Visualization Techniques Into Medical Applications",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of ISBI 2008",
    year = "2008",
    pages = "820--823",
    month = "may",
    abstract = "One of the main obstacles in integrating 3D volume visualization in
    the clinical workflow is the time-consuming process of adjusting
    parameters such as viewpoint, transfer functions, and clipping planes
    required to generate a diagnostically relevant image. Current applications
    therefore make scarce use of volume rendering and instead primarily
    employ 2D views generated through standard techniques such as multi-planar
    reconstruction (MPR). However, in many cases 3D renditions can supply
    additional useful information. This paper discusses ongoing work
    which aims to improve the integration of 3D visualization into the
    diagnostic workflow by automatically generating meaningful renditions
    based on minimal user interaction. A method for automatically generating
    3D views for structures in 2D slices based on a single picking interaction
    is presented.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2008-IVV.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2008-IVV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2008-IVV.png",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1109/ISBI.2008.4541122",
    isbn = "978-1-4244-2002-5",
    keywords = "viewpoint selection, medical visualization, volume rendering",
    location = "Paris, France",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2008/bruckner-2008-IVV/"
    }

2007

    [PDF] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Kohlmann-2007-EBV,
    author = "Peter Kohlmann and Stefan Bruckner and Armin Kanitsar and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Evaluation of a Bricked Volume Layout for a Medical Workstation based on Java",
    journal = "Journal of WSCG",
    year = "2007",
    volume = "15",
    number = "1-3",
    pages = "83--90",
    month = "jan",
    abstract = "Volumes acquired for medical examination purposes are constantly increasing
    in size. For this reason, the computer’s memory is the limiting
    factor for visualizing the data. Bricking is a well-known concept
    used for rendering large data sets. The volume data is subdivided
    into smaller blocks to achieve better memory utilization. Until now,
    the vast majority of medical workstations use a linear volume layout.
    We implemented a bricked volume layout for such a workstation based
    on Java as required by our collaborative company partner to evaluate
    different common access patterns to the volume data. For rendering,
    we were mainly interested to see how the performance will differ
    from the traditional linear volume layout if we generate images of
    arbitrarily oriented slices via Multi-Planar Reformatting (MPR).
    Furthermore, we tested access patterns which are crucial for segmentation
    issues like a random access to data values and a simulated region
    growing. Our goal was to find out if it makes sense to change the
    volume layout of a medical workstation to benefit from bricking.
    We were also interested to identify the tasks where problems might
    occur if bricking is applied. Overall, our results show that it is
    feasible to use a bricked volume layout in the stringent context
    of a medical workstation implemented in Java.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Kohlmann-2007-EBV.pdf",
    images = "images/Kohlmann-2007-EBV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Kohlmann-2007-EBV.png",
    issn = "1213-6972",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    event = "WSCG 2007",
    keywords = "MPR, bricked volume layout, medical visualization, medical workstation",
    location = "Plzen, Czech Republic",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2007/Kohlmann-2007-EBV/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Bruckner-2007-STF,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Style Transfer Functions for Illustrative Volume Rendering",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2007",
    volume = "26",
    number = "3",
    pages = "715--724",
    month = "sep",
    abstract = "Illustrative volume visualization frequently employs non-photorealistic
    rendering techniques to enhance important features or to suppress
    unwanted details. However, it is difficult to integrate multiple
    non-photorealistic rendering approaches into a single framework due
    to great differences in the individual methods and their parameters.
    In this paper, we present the concept of style transfer functions.
    Our approach enables flexible data-driven illumination which goes
    beyond using the transfer function to just assign colors and opacities.
    An image-based lighting model uses sphere maps to represent non-photorealistic
    rendering styles. Style transfer functions allow us to combine a
    multitude of different shading styles in a single rendering. We extend
    this concept with a technique for curvature-controlled style contours
    and an illustrative transparency model. Our implementation of the
    presented methods allows interactive generation of high-quality volumetric
    illustrations.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2007-STF.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2007-STF.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2007-STF.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40SdXa7aAjI",
    note = "Eurographics 2007 3rd Best Paper Award",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1111/j.1467-8659.2007.01095.x",
    event = "Eurographics 2007",
    keywords = "illustrative visualization, transfer functions, volume rendering",
    location = "Prague, Czech Republic",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2007/bruckner-2007-STF/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Kohlmann-2007-LDV,
    author = "Peter Kohlmann and Stefan Bruckner and Armin Kanitsar and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "LiveSync: Deformed Viewing Spheres for Knowledge-Based Navigation",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2007",
    volume = "13",
    number = "6",
    pages = "1544--1551",
    month = "oct",
    abstract = "Although real-time interactive volume rendering is available even
    for very large data sets, this visualization method is used quite
    rarely in the clinical practice. We suspect this is because it is
    very complicated and time consuming to adjust the parameters to achieve
    meaningful results. The clinician has to take care of the appropriate
    viewpoint, zooming, transfer function setup, clipping planes and
    other parameters. Because of this, most often only 2D slices of the
    data set are examined. Our work introduces LiveSync, a new concept
    to synchronize 2D slice views and volumetric views of medical data
    sets. Through intuitive picking actions on the slice, the users define
    the anatomical structures they are interested in. The 3D volumetric
    view is updated automatically with the goal that the users are provided
    with expressive result images. To achieve this live synchronization
    we use a minimal set of derived information without the need for
    segmented data sets or data-specific pre-computations. The components
    we consider are the picked point, slice view zoom, patient orientation,
    viewpoint history, local object shape and visibility. We introduce
    deformed viewing spheres which encode the viewpoint quality for the
    components. A combination of these deformed viewing spheres is used
    to estimate a good viewpoint. Our system provides the physician with
    synchronized views which help to gain deeper insight into the medical
    data with minimal user interaction.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Kohlmann-2007-LDV.pdf",
    images = "images/Kohlmann-2007-LDV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Kohlmann-2007-LDV.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzoS6plGxzQ",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2007.70576",
    event = "IEEE Visualization 2007",
    keywords = "linked views, interaction, medical visualization, navigation, viewpoint selection",
    location = "Sacramento, California, USA",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2007/kohlmann-2007-livesync/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Rautek-2007-SLI,
    author = "Peter Rautek and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Semantic Layers for Illustrative Volume Rendering",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2007",
    volume = "13",
    number = "6",
    pages = "1336--1343",
    month = "oct",
    abstract = "Direct volume rendering techniques map volumetric attributes (e.g.,
    density, gradient magnitude, etc.) to visual styles. Commonly this
    mapping is specified by a transfer function. The specification of
    transfer functions is a complex task and requires expert knowledge
    about the underlying rendering technique. In the case of multiple
    volumetric attributes and multiple visual styles the specification
    of the multi-dimensional transfer function becomes more challenging
    and non-intuitive. We present a novel methodology for the specification
    of a mapping from several volumetric attributes to multiple illustrative
    visual styles. We introduce semantic layers that allow a domain expert
    to specify the mapping in the natural language of the domain. A semantic
    layer defines the mapping of volumetric attributes to one visual
    style. Volumetric attributes and visual styles are represented as
    fuzzy sets. The mapping is specified by rules that are evaluated
    with fuzzy logic arithmetics. The user specifies the fuzzy sets and
    the rules without special knowledge about the underlying rendering
    technique. Semantic layers allow for a linguistic specification of
    the mapping from attributes to visual styles replacing the traditional
    transfer function specification.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Rautek-2007-SLI.pdf",
    images = "images/Rautek-2007-SLI.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Rautek-2007-SLI.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c91m6ru5m0g",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2007.70591",
    event = "IEEE Visualization 2007",
    keywords = "focus+context techniques, volume visualization, illustrative visualization",
    location = "Sacramento, California, USA",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2007/Rautek-2007-SLI/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Bruckner-2007-EDF,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Enhancing Depth-Perception with Flexible Volumetric Halos",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2007",
    volume = "13",
    number = "6",
    pages = "1344--1351",
    month = "oct",
    abstract = "Volumetric data commonly has high depth complexity which makes it
    difficult to judge spatial relationships accurately. There are many
    different ways to enhance depth perception, such as shading, contours,
    and shadows. Artists and illustrators frequently employ halos for
    this purpose. In this technique, regions surrounding the edges of
    certain structures are darkened or brightened which makes it easier
    to judge occlusion. Based on this concept, we present a flexible
    method for enhancing and highlighting structures of interest using
    GPU-based direct volume rendering. Our approach uses an interactively
    defined halo transfer function to classify structures of interest
    based on data value, direction, and position. A feature-preserving
    spreading algorithm is applied to distribute seed values to neighboring
    locations, generating a controllably smooth field of halo intensities.
    These halo intensities are then mapped to colors and opacities using
    a halo profile function. Our method can be used to annotate features
    at interactive frame rates.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2007-EDF.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2007-EDF.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2007-EDF.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvHfxX8wjE8",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2007.70555",
    event = "IEEE Visualization 2007",
    keywords = "volume rendering, illustrative visualization, halos",
    location = "Sacramento, California, USA",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2007/bruckner-2007-EDF/"
    }

2006

    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Bruckner-2006-EVV,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Exploded Views for Volume Data",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2006",
    volume = "12",
    number = "5",
    pages = "1077--1084",
    month = "sep",
    abstract = "Exploded views are an illustration technique where an object is partitioned
    into several segments. These segments are displaced to reveal otherwise
    hidden detail. In this paper we apply the concept of exploded views
    to volumetric data in order to solve the general problem of occlusion.
    In many cases an object of interest is occluded by other structures.
    While transparency or cutaways can be used to reveal a focus object,
    these techniques remove parts of the context information. Exploded
    views, on the other hand, do not suffer from this drawback. Our approach
    employs a force-based model: the volume is divided into a part configuration
    controlled by a number of forces and constraints. The focus object
    exerts an explosion force causing the parts to arrange according
    to the given constraints. We show that this novel and flexible approach
    allows for a wide variety of explosion-based visualizations including
    view-dependent explosions. Furthermore, we present a high-quality
    GPU-based volume ray casting algorithm for exploded views which allows
    rendering and interaction at several frames per second.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2006-EVV.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2006-EVV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2006-EVV.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6jEqVrjaM3M",
    issn = "1077-2626",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2006.140",
    event = "IEEE Visualization 2006",
    keywords = "exploded views, illustrative visualization, volume rendering",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2006/bruckner-2006-EVV/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Rautek-2006-DHQ,
    author = "Peter Rautek and Bal{\'a}zs Csebfalvi and S{\"o}ren Grimm and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "D2VR: High Quality Volume Rendering of Projection-based Volumetric Data",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of EuroVis 2006",
    year = "2006",
    pages = "211--218",
    month = "may",
    publisher = "IEEE CS",
    abstract = "Volume rendering techniques are conventionally classified as either
    direct or indirect methods. Indirect methods require to transform
    the initial volumetric model into an intermediate geometrical model
    in order to efficiently visualize it. In contrast, direct volume
    rendering (DVR) methods can directly process the volumetric data.
    Modern CT scanners usually provide data as a set of samples on a
    rectilinear grid, which is computed from the measured projections
    by discrete tomographic reconstruction. Therefore the rectilinear
    grid can already be considered as an intermediate volume representation.
    In this paper we introduce direct direct volume rendering (D²VR).
    D2VR does not require a rectilinear grid, since it is based on an
    immediate processing of the measured projections. Arbitrary samples
    for ray casting are reconstructed from the projections by using the
    Filtered Back-Projection algorithm. Our method removes a lossy resampling
    step from the classical volume rendering pipeline. It provides much
    higher accuracy than traditional grid-based resampling techniques
    do. Furthermore we also present a novel high-quality gradient estimation
    scheme, which is also based on the Filtered Back-Projection algorithm.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Rautek-2006-DHQ.pdf",
    images = "images/Rautek-2006-DHQ.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Rautek-2006-DHQ.png",
    number = "In Proceedings of EuroVis",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.2312/VisSym/EuroVis06/211-218",
    keywords = "volume rendering, filtered back-projection, reconstruction",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2006/RAUTEK06/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Bruckner-2006-ICE,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and S{\"o}ren Grimm and Armin Kanitsar and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Illustrative Context-Preserving Exploration of Volume Data",
    journal = "IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics",
    year = "2006",
    volume = "12",
    number = "6",
    pages = "1559--1569",
    month = "nov",
    abstract = "In volume rendering it is very difficult to simultaneously visualize
    interior and exterior structures while preserving clear shape cues.
    Highly transparent transfer functions produce cluttered images with
    many overlapping structures, while clipping techniques completely
    remove possibly important context information. In this paper we present
    a new model for volume rendering, inspired by techniques from illustration.
    It provides a means of interactively inspecting the interior of a
    volumetric data set in a feature-driven way which retains context
    information. The context-preserving volume rendering model uses a
    function of shading intensity, gradient magnitude, distance to the
    eye point, and previously accumulated opacity to selectively reduce
    the opacity in less important data regions. It is controlled by two
    user-specified parameters. This new method represents an alternative
    to conventional clipping techniques, shares their easy and intuitive
    user control, but does not suffer from the drawback of missing context
    information.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2006-ICE.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2006-ICE.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2006-ICE.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a92NXYtJeT0,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OLEr5-O1jmY,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RSet7-n6Mc4,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0U8lteEMOM,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=csYsfKrQxN8,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3xduvvU6IAw",
    issn = "1077-2626",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1109/TVCG.2006.96",
    keywords = "focus+context techniques, volume rendering, illustrative visualization",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2006/bruckner-2006-ICE/"
    }

2005

    [PDF] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Coto-2005-MAC,
    author = "Ernesto Coto and S{\"o}ren Grimm and Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller and Armin Kanitsar and Omaira Rodriguez",
    title = "MammoExplorer: An Advanced {CAD} Application for Breast {DC}E-{MRI}",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of VMV 2005",
    year = "2005",
    editor = "G. Greiner, J. Hornegger, H. Niemann, M. Stamminger",
    pages = "91--98",
    month = "nov",
    abstract = "Currently X-ray mammography is the most widely used method for early
    detection of breast cancer. However, the use of Dynamic Contrast
    Enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has gained wider attention, since it considerably
    improves tumor detection and classification by analyzing the flow
    of contrast agent within the breast tissue. In this paper we present
    MammoExplorer, a CAD application that combines advanced interaction,
    segmentation and visualization techniques to explore Breast DCE-MRI
    data. Our application uses Brushing and Linking, Two-level Volume
    Rendering, Importance-driven Volume Rendering, and False Color Maps.
    In addition, we present Enhancement Scatterplots, a novel graphical
    representation of DCE-MRI data, novel segmentation approaches, and
    a new way to explore time-varying CE-MRI data.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Coto-2005-MAC.pdf",
    images = "images/Coto-2005-MAC.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Coto-2005-MAC.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6XBD1f1y2xs",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    isbn = "3898380688",
    keywords = "CAD, breast cancer, contrast enhanced MRI",
    location = "Erlangen, Germany",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2005/coto-2005-MAC/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Bruckner-2005-ICV,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and S{\"o}ren Grimm and Armin Kanitsar and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Illustrative Context-Preserving Volume Rendering",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of EuroVis 2005",
    year = "2005",
    pages = "69--76",
    month = "may",
    abstract = "In volume rendering it is very difficult to simultaneously visualize
    interior and exterior structures while preserving clear shape cues.
    Very transparent transfer functions produce cluttered images with
    many overlapping structures, while clipping techniques completely
    remove possibly important context information. In this paper we present
    a new model for volume rendering, inspired by techniques from illustration
    that provides a means of interactively inspecting the interior of
    a volumetric data set in a feature-driven way which retains context
    information. The context-preserving volume rendering model uses a
    function of shading intensity, gradient magnitude, distance to the
    eye point, and previously accumulated opacity to selectively reduce
    the opacity in less important data regions. It is controlled by two
    user-specified parameters. This new method represents an alternative
    to conventional clipping techniques, shares their easy and intuitive
    user control, but does not suffer from the drawback of missing context
    information. ",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2005-ICV.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2005-ICV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2005-ICV.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tc4E2oOD8Zg,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_8P_hVBoFeU,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0yxNoPjT6Ig,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EjG6E2WEO30",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.2312/VisSym/EuroVis05/069-076",
    keywords = "non-photorealistic techniques, focus+context techniques, volume rendering",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2005/bruckner-2005-ICV/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Bruckner-2005-VIS,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "VolumeShop: An Interactive System for Direct Volume Illustration",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of IEEE Visualization 2005",
    year = "2005",
    editor = "C. T. Silva, E. Gr{\"o}ller, H. Rushmeier",
    pages = "671--678",
    month = "oct",
    abstract = "Illustrations play a major role in the education process. Whether
    used to teach a surgical or radiologic procedure, to illustrate normal
    or aberrant anatomy, or to explain the functioning of a technical
    device, illustration significantly impacts learning. Although many
    specimens are readily available as volumetric data sets, particularly
    in medicine, illustrations are commonly produced manually as static
    images in a time-consuming process. Our goal is to create a fully
    dynamic three-dimensional illustration environment which directly
    operates on volume data. Single images have the aesthetic appeal
    of traditional illustrations, but can be interactively altered and
    explored. In this paper we present methods to realize such a system
    which combines artistic visual styles and expressive visualization
    techniques. We introduce a novel concept for direct multi-object
    volume visualization which allows control of the appearance of inter-penetrating
    objects via two-dimensional transfer functions. Furthermore, a unifying
    approach to efficiently integrate many non-photorealistic rendering
    models is presented. We discuss several illustrative concepts which
    can be realized by combining cutaways, ghosting, and selective deformation.
    Finally, we also propose a simple interface to specify objects of
    interest through three-dimensional volumetric painting. All presented
    methods are integrated into VolumeShop, an interactive hardware-accelerated
    application for direct volume illustration.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2005-VIS.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2005-VIS.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2005-VIS.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1FZausY8dFw,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WB-4NHKSM4k,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rzi6q6n5lRs,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0B_fVsBibZk",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1109/VISUAL.2005.1532856",
    isbn = "0780394623",
    keywords = "focus+context techniques, illustrative visualization, volume rendering",
    location = "Minneapolis, USA",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2005/bruckner-2005-VIS/"
    }

2004

    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Grimm-2004-VVD,
    author = "S{\"o}ren Grimm and Stefan Bruckner and Armin Kanitsar and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "VOTS: VOlume doTS as a Point-Based Representation of Volumetric Data",
    journal = "Computer Graphics Forum",
    year = "2004",
    volume = "23",
    number = "3",
    pages = "668--661",
    month = "sep",
    abstract = "We present Volume dots (Vots), a new primitive for volumetric data
    modelling, processing, and rendering. Vots are a point-based representation
    of volumetric data. An individual Vot is specified by the coefficients
    of a Taylor series expansion, i.e. the function value and higher
    order derivatives at a specific point. A Vot does not only represent
    a single sample point, it represents the underlying function within
    a region. With the Vots representation we have a more intuitive and
    high-level description of the volume data. This allows direct analytical
    examination and manipulation of volumetric datasets. Vots enable
    the representation of the underlying scalar function with specified
    precision. User-centric importance sampling is also possible, i.e.,
    unimportant volume parts are still present but represented with just
    very few Vots. As proof of concept, we show Maximum Intensity Projection
    based on Vots.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Grimm-2004-VVD.pdf",
    images = "images/Grimm-2004-VVD.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Grimm-2004-VVD.png",
    issn = "0167-7055",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1111/j.1467-8659..00798.x",
    keywords = "point-based data, volume data",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2004/grimm-2004-volume/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [Bibtex]
    @ARTICLE {Grimm-2004-RDA,
    author = "S{\"o}ren Grimm and Stefan Bruckner and Armin Kanitsar and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "A Refined Data Addressing and Processing Scheme to Accelerate Volume Raycasting",
    journal = "Computers \& Graphics",
    year = "2004",
    volume = "28",
    number = "5",
    pages = "719--729",
    month = "oct",
    abstract = "Most volume rendering systems based on CPU volume raycasting still
    suffer from inefficient CPU utilization and high memory usage. To
    target these issues we present a new technique for efficient data
    addressing. Furthermore, we introduce a new processing scheme for
    volume raycasting which exploits thread-level parallelism - a technology
    now supported by commodity computer architectures.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Grimm-2004-RDA.pdf",
    images = "images/Grimm-2004-RDA.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Grimm-2004-RDA.png",
    issn = "0097-8493",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1016/j.cag.2004.06.010",
    isbn = "0097-8493",
    keywords = "volume raycasting, bricking, parallel computing",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2004/grimm-2004-arefined/"
    }
    [PDF] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Grimm-2004-FDM,
    author = "S{\"o}ren Grimm and Stefan Bruckner and Armin Kanitsar and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Flexible Direct Multi-Volume Rendering in Interactive Scenes",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of VMV 2004",
    year = "2004",
    pages = "386--379",
    month = "oct",
    abstract = "In this paper we describe methods to efficiently visualize multiple
    ntersecting volumetric objects. We introduce the concept of V-Objects.
    V-Objects represent abstract properties of an object connected to
    a volumetric data source. We present a method to perform direct volume
    rendering of a scene comprised of an arbitrary number of possibly
    intersecting V-Objects. The idea of our approach is to distinguish
    between regions of intersection, which need costly multi-volume processing,
    and regions containing only one V-Object, which can be processed
    using a highly efficient brick-wise volume traversal scheme. Using
    this method, we achieve significant performance gains for multi-volume
    rendering. We show possible medical applications, such as surgical
    planning, diagnosis, and education.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Grimm-2004-FDM.pdf",
    images = "images/Grimm-2004-FDM.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Grimm-2004-FDM.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pDskLE6cnFw,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VYKaSpsZd2s,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGE640_Tw2U,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p-I0HWBv4Jc,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6zlprE38GGo",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    keywords = "multi volume rendering, medical visualization, volume raycasting",
    location = "Stanford, USA",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2004/GRIMM-2004-FDMX-P/"
    }
    [PDF] [DOI] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Grimm-2004-MEA,
    author = "S{\"o}ren Grimm and Stefan Bruckner and Armin Kanitsar and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "Memory Efficient Acceleration Structures and Techniques for {CPU}-based Volume Raycasting of Large Data",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of IEEE VolVis 2004",
    year = "2004",
    editor = "D. Silver, T. Ertl, C. Silva",
    pages = "1--8",
    month = "oct",
    abstract = "Most CPU-based volume raycasting approaches achieve high performance
    by advanced memory layouts, space subdivision, and excessive pre-computing.
    Such approaches typically need an enormous amount of memory. They
    are limited to sizes which do not satisfy the medical data used in
    daily clinical routine. We present a new volume raycasting approach
    based on image-ordered raycasting with object-ordered processing,
    which is able to perform high-quality rendering of very large medical
    data in real-time on commodity computers. For large medical data
    such as computed tomographic (CT) angiography run-offs (512x512x1202)
    we achieve rendering times up to 2.5 fps on a commodity notebook.
    We achieve this by introducing a memory efficient acceleration technique
    for on-the-fly gradient estimation and a memory efficient hybrid
    removal and skipping technique of transparent regions. We employ
    quantized binary histograms, granular resolution octrees, and a cell
    invisibility cache. These acceleration structures require just a
    small extra storage of approximately 10%.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Grimm-2004-MEA.pdf",
    images = "images/Grimm-2004-MEA.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Grimm-2004-MEA.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WK9DJ6Dyrx4,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iYz5VYHMd9U,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UdtaaENWs7M",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    doi = "10.1109/SVVG.2004.8",
    isbn = "0-7803-8781-3",
    keywords = "volume rendering, acceleration, large data",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2004/grimm-2004-memory/"
    }
    [PDF] [Bibtex]
    @MASTERTHESIS {Bruckner-2004-EVV-Thesis,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Efficient Volume Visualization of Large Medical Datasets",
    school = "Vienna University of Technology, Austria",
    year = "2004",
    month = "may",
    abstract = "The size of volumetric datasets used in medical environments is increasing
    at a rapid pace. Due to excessive pre-computation and memory demanding
    data structures, most current approaches for volume visualization
    do not meet the requirements of daily clinical routine. In this diploma
    thesis, an approach for interactive high-quality rendering of large
    medical data is presented. It is based on image-order raycasting
    with object-order data traversal, using an optimized cache coherent
    memory layout. New techniques and parallelization strategies for
    direct volume rendering of large data on commodity hardware are presented.
    By using new memory efficient acceleration data structures, high-quality
    direct volume rendering of several hundred megabyte sized datasets
    at sub-second frame rates on a commodity notebook is achieved.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2004-EVV-Thesis.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2004-EVV-Thesis.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2004-EVV-Thesis.png",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    keywords = "volume rendering, large data",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2004/bruckner-2004-EVV/"
    }
    [PDF] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Bruckner-2004-EVV,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner",
    title = "Efficient Volume Visualization of Large Medical Datasets",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of CESCG 2004",
    year = "2004",
    month = "apr",
    abstract = "In volume visualization, huge amounts of data have to be processed.
    While modern hardware is quite capable of this task in terms of processing
    power, the gap between CPU performance and memory bandwidth further
    increases with every new generation of CPUs. It is therefore essential
    to efficiently use the limited memory bandwidth. In this paper, we
    present novel approaches to optimize CPU-based volume raycasting
    of large datasets on commodity hardware. A new addressing scheme
    is introduced, which permits the use of a bricked volume layout with
    minimal overhead. We further present an extended parallelization
    strategy for Simultaneous Multithreading. Finally, we introduce memory
    efficient acceleration data structures which enable us to render
    large medical datasets, such as the Visible Male (587x341x1878),
    at up to 2.5 frames/second on a commodity notebook.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2004-EVV.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2004-EVV.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2004-EVV.png",
    note = "CESCG 2004 Best Paper Award and Best Presentation Award",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    url = "http://www.cescg.org/CESCG-2004/web/Bruckner-Stefan/html/"
    }

2003

    [PDF] [YT] [Bibtex]
    @INPROCEEDINGS {Bruckner-2003-IWN,
    author = "Stefan Bruckner and Dieter Schmalstieg and Helwig Hauser and Meister Eduard Gr{\"o}ller",
    title = "The Inverse Warp: Non-Invasive Integration of Shear-Warp Volume Rendering into Polygon Rendering Pipelines",
    booktitle = "Proceedings of VMV 2003",
    year = "2003",
    editor = "T. Ertl, B. Girod, G. Greiner, H. Niemann, H.-P. Seidel, E. Steinbach, R. Westermann",
    pages = "529--536",
    month = "nov",
    publisher = "infix",
    abstract = "In this paper, a simple and efficient solution for combining shear-warp
    volume rendering and the hardware graphics pipeline is presented.
    The approach applies an inverse warp transformation to the Z-Buffer,
    containing the rendered geometry. This information is used for combining
    geometry and volume data during compositing. We present applications
    of this concept which include hybrid volume rendering, i.e., concurrent
    rendering of polygonal objects and volume data, and volume clipping
    on convex clipping regions. Furthermore, it can be used to efficiently
    define regions with different rendering modes and transfer functions
    for focus+context volume rendering. Empirical results show that the
    approach has very low impact on performance.",
    pdf = "pdfs/Bruckner-2003-IWN.pdf",
    images = "images/Bruckner-2003-IWN.jpg",
    thumbnails = "images/Bruckner-2003-IWN.png",
    youtube = "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_49gLBUO3E,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zmWQfUs3Bmc,https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qFwv-Ru8Ftc",
    affiliation = "tuwien",
    isbn = "3898380483",
    keywords = "focus+context techniques, clipping, hybrid volume rendering",
    url = "http://www.cg.tuwien.ac.at/research/publications/2003/Bruckner-2003-The/"
    }